Myeloid leukemia in Down syndrome (ML-DS) is associated with good response to chemotherapy and favorable prognosis. Because little research has been focused on refractory/relapsed (R/R) cases, we conducted a retrospective analysis for R/R ML-DS. Among ML-DS patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 in Japan, 26 relapsed (25 in the BM and 1 in the skin), and 3 refractory patients were enrolled. The male/female ratio was 18/11. The median age at initial diagnosis of ML-DS was 2 years, and the median time to relapse was 8.6 months. Each patient initially had been treated with ML-DS-specific protocols. Thirteen of the 26 patients achieved complete remission with various kinds of reinduction chemotherapies; 2 of 8 survived without further recurrence after receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and 4 of 5 maintained complete remissions with chemotherapy alone. Treatment failures mostly were associated with disease progression rather than treatment-related toxicities. The 3-year OS rate was 25.9% ± 8.5%. A longer duration from initial diagnosis to relapse was a significant favorable prognostic factor (P < .0001). We conclude that clinical outcome for patients with R/R ML-DS generally are unfavorable, even in those receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Novel methods to identify poor prognostic factors for ML-DS are necessary.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology