This study sought to evaluate the usefulness of real-time three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to guide the repair of multiple atrial septal defects (ASDs). Of 212 consecutive patients with secundum ASD who were scheduled for transcatheter closure of their ASDs, 27 had multiple ASDs. These patients underwent two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography, 2D TEE, and 3D TEE. Overall, 18 patients had two defects, and 9 patients had three or more defects. The latter group included three patients with multifenestrated defects. Optimal 3D images were obtained in 93 % of the patients. In patients with two defects, information on the positional relation of the defects was obtained using 2D TEE and 3D TEE in 71 and 94 % of patients, respectively (P = 0.22). The positional relations of the defects could not be evaluated with 2D TEE in patients with three or more defects, whereas it could be evaluated with 3D TEE in all of these patients (0 vs. 100 %, P = 0.008). In all patients, 3D TEE proved superior to 2D TEE for providing sufficient information (96 vs. 48 %, P = 0.002). Procedural success was obtained in 26 patients (96.3 %), without complications. Transcatheter closure of multiple ASDs under 3D TEE guidance is effective and safe. Real-time 3D TEE can provide useful information regarding complex ASD morphology. It can thus contribute to developing a successful treatment strategy, especially in patients with three or more defects.
- Atrial septal defect
- Multiple defects
- Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography
- Transcatheter closure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine