Chemotherapy is superior to checkpoint inhibitors after radical surgery for urothelial carcinoma: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of oncologic and toxicity outcomes

Ekaterina Laukhtina, Reza Sari Motlagh, Keiichiro Mori, Satoshi Katayama, Pawel Rajwa, Takafumi Yanagisawa, Fahad Quhal, Hadi Mostafaei, Nico C. Grossmann, Frederik König, Abdulmajeed Aydh, Benjamin Pradere, Irene Resch, Axel S. Merseburger, Dmitry Enikeev, Shahrokh F. Shariat

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To determine the oncologic and toxicity outcomes of adjuvant immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) compared to adjuvant chemotherapy in patients treated with radical surgery for urothelial carcinoma (UC). Methods: We used the Bayesian approach in the network meta-analysis of different therapy regimens compared to observation or placebo. Results: Nine studies comprised of 2,444 patients met the eligibility criteria. In bladder UC, chemotherapy, atezolizumab, and nivolumab did not improve disease progression compared to observation/placebo. In upper tract UC (UTUC), chemotherapy was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of disease progression compared to observation/placebo, while atezolizumab and nivolumab were not. Based on the analysis of the treatment ranking, adjuvant chemotherapy appeared as the best treatment approach in both bladder UC and UTUC. The risk of adverse events with ICIs was comparable to that of observation/placebo. Conclusion: Our analysis suggests a superior oncologic benefit to adjuvant chemotherapy over ICIs in patients treated with radical surgery for both bladder UC and UTUC.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103570
JournalCritical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology
Volume169
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

Keywords

  • adjuvant therapy
  • chemotherapy
  • ICI
  • PD-1
  • PD-L1
  • urothelial carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology

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