The chemical composition and immunobiological activites in vivo and in vitro of sodium dodecyl sulphate extracts (SDS-SE) derived from periodontopathic bacteria (three strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, two strains of Bacteroides gingivalis, and one strain of Fusobacterium nucleatum) were investigated. The main components of SDS-SE were protein and lipid, with negligible amounts of peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide. Immunopotentiating activity was detected in both delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody formation against the elicitation of a protein antigen with the SDS-SE preparations of A. actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29524 and B. gingivalis 381 and 1021. On the other hand the SDS-SE of A. actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29522 enhanced only the induction of a delayed-type hypersensitivity response. All the SDS-SE preparations had mitogenic activity to splenocytes from BALB/C nu/nu, C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice. Migration-stimulating activity for human peripheral blood monocytes was detected especially in the SDS-SE preparations of A. actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29524 and Y4. All of the SDS-SE samples inhibited [3H]thymidine uptake in human gingival fibroblasts and caused degradation of the cells. The results suggest that the cell membrane components extractable with sodium dodecyl sulphate from periodontopathic bacteria are involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.
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