Background: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) remains one of the most devastating manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Recent findings of BOS after lung transplantation indicate that donor (lung)-derived lung-resident macrophages contribute to BOS, suggesting that differences in the origin of immune cells and localized antigen-presenting cells cause the onset of BOS. Methods: We identified the phenotype and origin of infiltrating macrophages using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization in eight sex-mismatched HCT recipients who underwent lung transplantation for BOS after HCT. Results: Most of the infiltrating macrophages appeared to be derived from donor (hematopoietic) cells in patients who developed BOS following HCT. Macrophages observed in the early-stage region of BOS were positive for cluster of differentiation (CD)68 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and negative for CD163 and CD206, suggesting an M1 phenotype. In the late-stage region, macrophages were negative for CD68 and iNOS in all patients, but also positive for CD163 and CD206 in some patients. Conclusions: Donor-derived M1-macrophages may be involved in the pathogenesis of the early-stage region of BOS. In addition, some macrophages in the late-stage region showed M2 polarization that might be involved in fibrosis.
- Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
- Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome
- Graft-versus-host disease
- Lung transplantation
ASJC Scopus subject areas