Background: In contrast to Staphylococcus aureus-derived superantigenic exotoxins, the role of nonsuperantigenic exotoxins in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic airway diseases remains obscure. We sought to characterize S. aureus alpha-toxin-induced cellular responses in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP).
Methods: Dispersed nasal polyp cells and uncinate tissue cells were prepared from patients with CRS with and without nasal polyps, respectively. Cells were incubated with various concentrations of alpha-toxin or staphylococcal enterotoxin B and then the levels of IL-5, IL-13, IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-10 in the cell supernatants were determined. The pathophysiological significance of alpha-toxin-induced cytokine production was also determined including radiological severity of rhinosinusitis, tissue and blood eosinophilia, serum total IgE level, and 1-s forced expiratory volumeforced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC).
Results: Nasal polyp cells produced substantial amounts of IL-5, IL-13, IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-10 in response to alpha-toxin. Cytokine production was higher in nasal polyp cells than in uncinate tissue cells. The potency of alpha-toxin in stimulating IL-5, IL-13, and IL-10 production was comparable to that of enterotoxin. Alpha-toxininduced IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-10 production significantly and negatively correlated with the degree of eosinophil infiltration into nasal polyps. Conversely, alpha-toxin-induced IFN-γ and IL-10 production significantly and positively correlated with FEV1/FVC. IL-10 production was significantly lower in asthmatic patients compared to non-asthmatics
Conclusions: S. aureus-derived alpha-toxin can provoke cellular responses in nasal polyps. These responses, especially failure to synthesize IL-10, may play a role in the pathophysiology of CRSwNP.
- Chronic rhinosinusitis
- Nasal polyps
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy