We investigate the critical behavior of a near-critical fluid confined between two parallel plates in contact with a reservoir by calculating the order parameter profile and the Casimir amplitudes (for the force density and for the grand potential). Our results are applicable to one-component fluids and binary mixtures. We assume that the walls absorb one of the fluid components selectively for binary mixtures. We propose a renormalized local functional theory accounting for the fluctuation effects. Analysis is performed in the plane of the temperature T and the order parameter in the reservoir ψ ∞. Our theory is universal if the physical quantities are scaled appropriately. If the component favored by the walls is slightly poor in the reservoir, there appears a line of first-order phase transition of capillary condensation outside the bulk coexistence curve. The excess adsorption changes discontinuously between condensed and noncondensed states at the transition. With increasing T, the transition line ends at a capillary critical point T=T c ca slightly lower than the bulk critical temperature T c for the upper critical solution temperature. The Casimir amplitudes are larger than their critical point values by 10-100 times at off-critical compositions near the capillary condensation line.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry