Background: We investigated the acute effects of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock on myocardium, cardiac function, and hemodynamics in relation to left ventricular systolic function. Methods and Results: We studied 50 patients who underwent implantable cardioverter- defibrillator implantation and defibrillation threshold (DFT) testing: 25 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥45% and 25 patients with LVEF <45%. We measured cardiac biomarkers (creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, myoglobin, cardiac troponin T and I, and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide). Left ventricular relaxation was assessed by global longitudinal strain rate during the isovolumetric relaxation period using speckle-tracking echocardiography. Blood sampling and echocardiography were performed before, immediately after, and 5 minutes and 4 hours after DFT testing. Mean arterial pressure was measured directly during DFT testing. Cardiac biomarkers showed no significant changes in either group. LVEF was decreased until 5 minutes after DFT testing and had recovered to the baseline at 4 hours in the group with reduced LVEF (P<0.001), whereas LVEF reduction was not observed in the group with preserved LVEF (P=0.637). Global isovolumetric relaxation period was decreased until 5 minutes after DFT testing and had recovered to the baseline at 4 hours in both groups (preserved LVEF: 0.39±0.14 versus 0.23±0.13 versus 0.23±0.13 versus 0.40±0.13 s-1, *P<0.001 versus baseline; reduced LVEF: 0.15±0.05 versus 0.08±0.04† versus 0.09±0.04† versus 0.15±0.05 s-1, †P<0.001 versus baseline, repeated-measures ANOVA). Time to recovery of mean arterial pressure to the baseline was prolonged in the group with reduced LVEF (P<0.001). Conclusions: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock transiently impairs cardiac function and hemodynamics especially in patients with systolic dysfunction, although significant tissue injury is not observed.
- Cardiac function
- Implanted cardioverter defibrillators
- Ventricular fibrillation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)