Carbon-rich materials, which contain over 90% carbon, have been mainly synthesized by the carbonization of organic compounds. However, in many cases, their original molecular and ordered structures are decomposed by the carbonization process, which results in a failure to retain their original three-dimensional (3D) ordering at the angstrom level. Recently, we successfully produced carbon-rich materials that are able to retain their 3D ordering at the angstrom level even after the calcination of organic porous pillararene supramolecular assemblies and cyclic porphyrin dimer assemblies. Other new pathways to prepare carbon-rich materials with 3D ordering at the angstrom level are the controlled polymerization of designed monomers and redox reaction of graph. Electrocatalytic application using these materials is described.
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