Cancer cell-derived granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is dispensable for the progression of 4T1 murine breast cancer

Teizo Yoshimura, Kaoru Nakamura, Chunning Li, Masayoshi Fujisawa, Tsuyoshi Shiina, Mayu Imamura, Tiantian Li, Naofumi Mukaida, Akihiro Matsukawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We previously reported that 4T1 murine breast cancer cells produce GM-CSF that up-regulates macrophage expression of several cancer promoting genes, including Mcp-1/Ccl2, Ccl17 and Rankl, suggesting a critical role of cancer cell-derived GM-CSF in cancer progression. Here, we attempted to define whether 4T1 cell-derived GM-CSF contributes to the expression of these genes by 4T1tumors, and their subsequent progression. Intraperitoneal injection of anti-GM-CSF neutralizing antibody did not decrease the expression of Mcp-1, Ccl17 or Rankl mRNA by 4T1 tumors. To further examine the role of cancer cell-derived GM-CSF, we generated GM-CSF-deficient 4T1 cells by using the Crisper-Cas9 system. As previously demonstrated, 4T1 cells are a mixture of cells and cloning of cells by itself significantly reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis. By contrast, GM-CSF-deficiency did not affect tumor growth, lung metastasis or the expression of these chemokine and cytokine genes in tumor tissues. By in-situ hybridization, the expression of Mcp-1 mRNA was detected in both F4/80-expressing and non-expressing cells in tumors of GM-CSF-deficient cells. These results indicate that cancer cell-derived GM-CSF is dispensable for the tuning of the 4T1 tumor microenvironment and the production of MCP-1, CCL17 or RANKL in the 4T1 tumor microenvironment is likely regulated by redundant mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6342
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Volume20
Issue number24
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2 2019

Keywords

  • Breast cancer
  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation
  • Macrophages
  • Tumor microenvironment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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