Calibration of the Super-Kamiokande detector

K. Abe, Y. Hayato, T. Iida, K. Iyogi, J. Kameda, Y. Kishimoto, Yusuke Koshio, Ll Marti, M. Miura, S. Moriyama, M. Nakahata, Y. Nakano, S. Nakayama, Y. Obayashi, H. Sekiya, M. Shiozawa, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeda, Y. Takenaga, H. Tanaka & 113 others T. Tomura, K. Ueno, R. A. Wendell, T. Yokozawa, T. J. Irvine, H. Kaji, T. Kajita, K. Kaneyuki, K. P. Lee, Y. Nishimura, K. Okumura, T. McLachlan, L. Labarga, E. Kearns, J. L. Raaf, J. L. Stone, L. R. Sulak, S. Berkman, H. A. Tanaka, S. Tobayama, M. Goldhaber, K. Bays, G. Carminati, W. R. Kropp, S. Mine, A. Renshaw, M. B. Smy, H. W. Sobel, K. S. Ganezer, J. Hill, W. E. Keig, J. S. Jang, J. Y. Kim, I. T. Lim, N. Hong, T. Akiri, J. B. Albert, A. Himmel, K. Scholberg, C. W. Walter, T. Wongjirad, T. Ishizuka, S. Tasaka, J. G. Learned, S. Matsuno, S. N. Smith, T. Hasegawa, T. Ishida, T. Ishii, T. Kobayashi, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakamura, K. Nishikawa, Y. Oyama, K. Sakashita, T. Sekiguchi, T. Tsukamoto, A. T. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, K. Huang, K. Ieki, M. Ikeda, T. Kikawa, H. Kubo, A. Minamino, A. Murakami, T. Nakaya, M. Otani, K. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, Y. Fukuda, K. Choi, Y. Itow, G. Mitsuka, M. Miyake, P. Mijakowski, R. Tacik, J. Hignight, J. Imber, C. K. Jung, I. Taylor, C. Yanagisawa, Y. Idehara, Hirokazu Ishino, A. Kibayashi, T. Mori, Makoto Sakuda, R. Yamaguchi, T. Yano, Y. Kuno, S. B. Kim, B. S. Yang, H. Okazawa, Y. Choi, K. Nishijima, M. Koshiba, Y. Totsuka, M. Yokoyama, K. Martens, M. R. Vagins, J. F. Martin, P. De Perio, A. Konaka, M. J. Wilking, S. Chen, Y. Heng, H. Sui, Z. Yang, H. Zhang, Y. Zhenwei, K. Connolly, M. Dziomba, R. J. Wilkes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

60 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Procedures and results on hardware-level detector calibration in Super-Kamiokande (SK) are presented in this paper. In particular, we report improvements made in our calibration methods for the experimental phase IV in which new readout electronics have been operating since 2008. The topics are separated into two parts. The first part describes the determination of constants needed to interpret the digitized output of our electronics so that we can obtain physical numbers such as photon counts and their arrival times for each photomultiplier tube (PMT). In this context, we developed an in situ procedure to determine high-voltage settings for PMTs in large detectors like SK, as well as a new method for measuring PMT quantum efficiency and gain in such a detector. The second part describes modeling of the detector in Monte Carlo simulations, including, in particular, the optical properties of the water target and their variability over time. Detailed studies on water quality are also presented. As a result of this work, we have achieved a precision sufficient for physics analyses over a wide energy range (from a few MeV to above 1 TeV). For example, charge determination was at the level of 1%, and the timing resolution was 2.1 ns at the one-photoelectron charge level and 0.5 ns at the 100-photoelectron charge level.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)253-272
Number of pages20
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume737
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 11 2014

Fingerprint

Calibration
Detectors
Photomultipliers
detectors
photomultiplier tubes
Photoelectrons
photoelectrons
Electronic equipment
water quality
Quantum efficiency
electronics
Water quality
arrivals
readout
quantum efficiency
high voltages
hardware
Photons
Physics
Optical properties

Keywords

  • Cosmic rays
  • Detector calibration
  • Neutrino detector
  • Super-Kamioknade
  • Water Cherenkov detector

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Cite this

Calibration of the Super-Kamiokande detector. / Abe, K.; Hayato, Y.; Iida, T.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koshio, Yusuke; Marti, Ll; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakano, Y.; Nakayama, S.; Obayashi, Y.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeda, A.; Takenaga, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tomura, T.; Ueno, K.; Wendell, R. A.; Yokozawa, T.; Irvine, T. J.; Kaji, H.; Kajita, T.; Kaneyuki, K.; Lee, K. P.; Nishimura, Y.; Okumura, K.; McLachlan, T.; Labarga, L.; Kearns, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Berkman, S.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tobayama, S.; Goldhaber, M.; Bays, K.; Carminati, G.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Renshaw, A.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hill, J.; Keig, W. E.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Hong, N.; Akiri, T.; Albert, J. B.; Himmel, A.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wongjirad, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Tasaka, S.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Smith, S. N.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Suzuki, A. T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Huang, K.; Ieki, K.; Ikeda, M.; Kikawa, T.; Kubo, H.; Minamino, A.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Otani, M.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Choi, K.; Itow, Y.; Mitsuka, G.; Miyake, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Tacik, R.; Hignight, J.; Imber, J.; Jung, C. K.; Taylor, I.; Yanagisawa, C.; Idehara, Y.; Ishino, Hirokazu; Kibayashi, A.; Mori, T.; Sakuda, Makoto; Yamaguchi, R.; Yano, T.; Kuno, Y.; Kim, S. B.; Yang, B. S.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Nishijima, K.; Koshiba, M.; Totsuka, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Martens, K.; Vagins, M. R.; Martin, J. F.; De Perio, P.; Konaka, A.; Wilking, M. J.; Chen, S.; Heng, Y.; Sui, H.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhenwei, Y.; Connolly, K.; Dziomba, M.; Wilkes, R. J.

In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 737, 11.02.2014, p. 253-272.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abe, K, Hayato, Y, Iida, T, Iyogi, K, Kameda, J, Kishimoto, Y, Koshio, Y, Marti, L, Miura, M, Moriyama, S, Nakahata, M, Nakano, Y, Nakayama, S, Obayashi, Y, Sekiya, H, Shiozawa, M, Suzuki, Y, Takeda, A, Takenaga, Y, Tanaka, H, Tomura, T, Ueno, K, Wendell, RA, Yokozawa, T, Irvine, TJ, Kaji, H, Kajita, T, Kaneyuki, K, Lee, KP, Nishimura, Y, Okumura, K, McLachlan, T, Labarga, L, Kearns, E, Raaf, JL, Stone, JL, Sulak, LR, Berkman, S, Tanaka, HA, Tobayama, S, Goldhaber, M, Bays, K, Carminati, G, Kropp, WR, Mine, S, Renshaw, A, Smy, MB, Sobel, HW, Ganezer, KS, Hill, J, Keig, WE, Jang, JS, Kim, JY, Lim, IT, Hong, N, Akiri, T, Albert, JB, Himmel, A, Scholberg, K, Walter, CW, Wongjirad, T, Ishizuka, T, Tasaka, S, Learned, JG, Matsuno, S, Smith, SN, Hasegawa, T, Ishida, T, Ishii, T, Kobayashi, T, Nakadaira, T, Nakamura, K, Nishikawa, K, Oyama, Y, Sakashita, K, Sekiguchi, T, Tsukamoto, T, Suzuki, AT, Takeuchi, Y, Huang, K, Ieki, K, Ikeda, M, Kikawa, T, Kubo, H, Minamino, A, Murakami, A, Nakaya, T, Otani, M, Suzuki, K, Takahashi, S, Fukuda, Y, Choi, K, Itow, Y, Mitsuka, G, Miyake, M, Mijakowski, P, Tacik, R, Hignight, J, Imber, J, Jung, CK, Taylor, I, Yanagisawa, C, Idehara, Y, Ishino, H, Kibayashi, A, Mori, T, Sakuda, M, Yamaguchi, R, Yano, T, Kuno, Y, Kim, SB, Yang, BS, Okazawa, H, Choi, Y, Nishijima, K, Koshiba, M, Totsuka, Y, Yokoyama, M, Martens, K, Vagins, MR, Martin, JF, De Perio, P, Konaka, A, Wilking, MJ, Chen, S, Heng, Y, Sui, H, Yang, Z, Zhang, H, Zhenwei, Y, Connolly, K, Dziomba, M & Wilkes, RJ 2014, 'Calibration of the Super-Kamiokande detector', Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol. 737, pp. 253-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2013.11.081
Abe, K. ; Hayato, Y. ; Iida, T. ; Iyogi, K. ; Kameda, J. ; Kishimoto, Y. ; Koshio, Yusuke ; Marti, Ll ; Miura, M. ; Moriyama, S. ; Nakahata, M. ; Nakano, Y. ; Nakayama, S. ; Obayashi, Y. ; Sekiya, H. ; Shiozawa, M. ; Suzuki, Y. ; Takeda, A. ; Takenaga, Y. ; Tanaka, H. ; Tomura, T. ; Ueno, K. ; Wendell, R. A. ; Yokozawa, T. ; Irvine, T. J. ; Kaji, H. ; Kajita, T. ; Kaneyuki, K. ; Lee, K. P. ; Nishimura, Y. ; Okumura, K. ; McLachlan, T. ; Labarga, L. ; Kearns, E. ; Raaf, J. L. ; Stone, J. L. ; Sulak, L. R. ; Berkman, S. ; Tanaka, H. A. ; Tobayama, S. ; Goldhaber, M. ; Bays, K. ; Carminati, G. ; Kropp, W. R. ; Mine, S. ; Renshaw, A. ; Smy, M. B. ; Sobel, H. W. ; Ganezer, K. S. ; Hill, J. ; Keig, W. E. ; Jang, J. S. ; Kim, J. Y. ; Lim, I. T. ; Hong, N. ; Akiri, T. ; Albert, J. B. ; Himmel, A. ; Scholberg, K. ; Walter, C. W. ; Wongjirad, T. ; Ishizuka, T. ; Tasaka, S. ; Learned, J. G. ; Matsuno, S. ; Smith, S. N. ; Hasegawa, T. ; Ishida, T. ; Ishii, T. ; Kobayashi, T. ; Nakadaira, T. ; Nakamura, K. ; Nishikawa, K. ; Oyama, Y. ; Sakashita, K. ; Sekiguchi, T. ; Tsukamoto, T. ; Suzuki, A. T. ; Takeuchi, Y. ; Huang, K. ; Ieki, K. ; Ikeda, M. ; Kikawa, T. ; Kubo, H. ; Minamino, A. ; Murakami, A. ; Nakaya, T. ; Otani, M. ; Suzuki, K. ; Takahashi, S. ; Fukuda, Y. ; Choi, K. ; Itow, Y. ; Mitsuka, G. ; Miyake, M. ; Mijakowski, P. ; Tacik, R. ; Hignight, J. ; Imber, J. ; Jung, C. K. ; Taylor, I. ; Yanagisawa, C. ; Idehara, Y. ; Ishino, Hirokazu ; Kibayashi, A. ; Mori, T. ; Sakuda, Makoto ; Yamaguchi, R. ; Yano, T. ; Kuno, Y. ; Kim, S. B. ; Yang, B. S. ; Okazawa, H. ; Choi, Y. ; Nishijima, K. ; Koshiba, M. ; Totsuka, Y. ; Yokoyama, M. ; Martens, K. ; Vagins, M. R. ; Martin, J. F. ; De Perio, P. ; Konaka, A. ; Wilking, M. J. ; Chen, S. ; Heng, Y. ; Sui, H. ; Yang, Z. ; Zhang, H. ; Zhenwei, Y. ; Connolly, K. ; Dziomba, M. ; Wilkes, R. J. / Calibration of the Super-Kamiokande detector. In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 2014 ; Vol. 737. pp. 253-272.
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abstract = "Procedures and results on hardware-level detector calibration in Super-Kamiokande (SK) are presented in this paper. In particular, we report improvements made in our calibration methods for the experimental phase IV in which new readout electronics have been operating since 2008. The topics are separated into two parts. The first part describes the determination of constants needed to interpret the digitized output of our electronics so that we can obtain physical numbers such as photon counts and their arrival times for each photomultiplier tube (PMT). In this context, we developed an in situ procedure to determine high-voltage settings for PMTs in large detectors like SK, as well as a new method for measuring PMT quantum efficiency and gain in such a detector. The second part describes modeling of the detector in Monte Carlo simulations, including, in particular, the optical properties of the water target and their variability over time. Detailed studies on water quality are also presented. As a result of this work, we have achieved a precision sufficient for physics analyses over a wide energy range (from a few MeV to above 1 TeV). For example, charge determination was at the level of 1{\%}, and the timing resolution was 2.1 ns at the one-photoelectron charge level and 0.5 ns at the 100-photoelectron charge level.",
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author = "K. Abe and Y. Hayato and T. Iida and K. Iyogi and J. Kameda and Y. Kishimoto and Yusuke Koshio and Ll Marti and M. Miura and S. Moriyama and M. Nakahata and Y. Nakano and S. Nakayama and Y. Obayashi and H. Sekiya and M. Shiozawa and Y. Suzuki and A. Takeda and Y. Takenaga and H. Tanaka and T. Tomura and K. Ueno and Wendell, {R. A.} and T. Yokozawa and Irvine, {T. J.} and H. Kaji and T. Kajita and K. Kaneyuki and Lee, {K. P.} and Y. Nishimura and K. Okumura and T. McLachlan and L. Labarga and E. Kearns and Raaf, {J. L.} and Stone, {J. L.} and Sulak, {L. R.} and S. Berkman and Tanaka, {H. A.} and S. Tobayama and M. Goldhaber and K. Bays and G. Carminati and Kropp, {W. R.} and S. Mine and A. Renshaw and Smy, {M. B.} and Sobel, {H. W.} and Ganezer, {K. S.} and J. Hill and Keig, {W. E.} and Jang, {J. S.} and Kim, {J. Y.} and Lim, {I. T.} and N. Hong and T. Akiri and Albert, {J. B.} and A. Himmel and K. Scholberg and Walter, {C. W.} and T. Wongjirad and T. Ishizuka and S. Tasaka and Learned, {J. G.} and S. Matsuno and Smith, {S. N.} and T. Hasegawa and T. Ishida and T. Ishii and T. Kobayashi and T. Nakadaira and K. Nakamura and K. Nishikawa and Y. Oyama and K. Sakashita and T. Sekiguchi and T. Tsukamoto and Suzuki, {A. T.} and Y. Takeuchi and K. Huang and K. Ieki and M. Ikeda and T. Kikawa and H. Kubo and A. Minamino and A. Murakami and T. Nakaya and M. Otani and K. Suzuki and S. Takahashi and Y. Fukuda and K. Choi and Y. Itow and G. Mitsuka and M. Miyake and P. Mijakowski and R. Tacik and J. Hignight and J. Imber and Jung, {C. K.} and I. Taylor and C. Yanagisawa and Y. Idehara and Hirokazu Ishino and A. Kibayashi and T. Mori and Makoto Sakuda and R. Yamaguchi and T. Yano and Y. Kuno and Kim, {S. B.} and Yang, {B. S.} and H. Okazawa and Y. Choi and K. Nishijima and M. Koshiba and Y. Totsuka and M. Yokoyama and K. Martens and Vagins, {M. R.} and Martin, {J. F.} and {De Perio}, P. and A. Konaka and Wilking, {M. J.} and S. Chen and Y. Heng and H. Sui and Z. Yang and H. Zhang and Y. Zhenwei and K. Connolly and M. Dziomba and Wilkes, {R. J.}",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Calibration of the Super-Kamiokande detector

AU - Abe, K.

AU - Hayato, Y.

AU - Iida, T.

AU - Iyogi, K.

AU - Kameda, J.

AU - Kishimoto, Y.

AU - Koshio, Yusuke

AU - Marti, Ll

AU - Miura, M.

AU - Moriyama, S.

AU - Nakahata, M.

AU - Nakano, Y.

AU - Nakayama, S.

AU - Obayashi, Y.

AU - Sekiya, H.

AU - Shiozawa, M.

AU - Suzuki, Y.

AU - Takeda, A.

AU - Takenaga, Y.

AU - Tanaka, H.

AU - Tomura, T.

AU - Ueno, K.

AU - Wendell, R. A.

AU - Yokozawa, T.

AU - Irvine, T. J.

AU - Kaji, H.

AU - Kajita, T.

AU - Kaneyuki, K.

AU - Lee, K. P.

AU - Nishimura, Y.

AU - Okumura, K.

AU - McLachlan, T.

AU - Labarga, L.

AU - Kearns, E.

AU - Raaf, J. L.

AU - Stone, J. L.

AU - Sulak, L. R.

AU - Berkman, S.

AU - Tanaka, H. A.

AU - Tobayama, S.

AU - Goldhaber, M.

AU - Bays, K.

AU - Carminati, G.

AU - Kropp, W. R.

AU - Mine, S.

AU - Renshaw, A.

AU - Smy, M. B.

AU - Sobel, H. W.

AU - Ganezer, K. S.

AU - Hill, J.

AU - Keig, W. E.

AU - Jang, J. S.

AU - Kim, J. Y.

AU - Lim, I. T.

AU - Hong, N.

AU - Akiri, T.

AU - Albert, J. B.

AU - Himmel, A.

AU - Scholberg, K.

AU - Walter, C. W.

AU - Wongjirad, T.

AU - Ishizuka, T.

AU - Tasaka, S.

AU - Learned, J. G.

AU - Matsuno, S.

AU - Smith, S. N.

AU - Hasegawa, T.

AU - Ishida, T.

AU - Ishii, T.

AU - Kobayashi, T.

AU - Nakadaira, T.

AU - Nakamura, K.

AU - Nishikawa, K.

AU - Oyama, Y.

AU - Sakashita, K.

AU - Sekiguchi, T.

AU - Tsukamoto, T.

AU - Suzuki, A. T.

AU - Takeuchi, Y.

AU - Huang, K.

AU - Ieki, K.

AU - Ikeda, M.

AU - Kikawa, T.

AU - Kubo, H.

AU - Minamino, A.

AU - Murakami, A.

AU - Nakaya, T.

AU - Otani, M.

AU - Suzuki, K.

AU - Takahashi, S.

AU - Fukuda, Y.

AU - Choi, K.

AU - Itow, Y.

AU - Mitsuka, G.

AU - Miyake, M.

AU - Mijakowski, P.

AU - Tacik, R.

AU - Hignight, J.

AU - Imber, J.

AU - Jung, C. K.

AU - Taylor, I.

AU - Yanagisawa, C.

AU - Idehara, Y.

AU - Ishino, Hirokazu

AU - Kibayashi, A.

AU - Mori, T.

AU - Sakuda, Makoto

AU - Yamaguchi, R.

AU - Yano, T.

AU - Kuno, Y.

AU - Kim, S. B.

AU - Yang, B. S.

AU - Okazawa, H.

AU - Choi, Y.

AU - Nishijima, K.

AU - Koshiba, M.

AU - Totsuka, Y.

AU - Yokoyama, M.

AU - Martens, K.

AU - Vagins, M. R.

AU - Martin, J. F.

AU - De Perio, P.

AU - Konaka, A.

AU - Wilking, M. J.

AU - Chen, S.

AU - Heng, Y.

AU - Sui, H.

AU - Yang, Z.

AU - Zhang, H.

AU - Zhenwei, Y.

AU - Connolly, K.

AU - Dziomba, M.

AU - Wilkes, R. J.

PY - 2014/2/11

Y1 - 2014/2/11

N2 - Procedures and results on hardware-level detector calibration in Super-Kamiokande (SK) are presented in this paper. In particular, we report improvements made in our calibration methods for the experimental phase IV in which new readout electronics have been operating since 2008. The topics are separated into two parts. The first part describes the determination of constants needed to interpret the digitized output of our electronics so that we can obtain physical numbers such as photon counts and their arrival times for each photomultiplier tube (PMT). In this context, we developed an in situ procedure to determine high-voltage settings for PMTs in large detectors like SK, as well as a new method for measuring PMT quantum efficiency and gain in such a detector. The second part describes modeling of the detector in Monte Carlo simulations, including, in particular, the optical properties of the water target and their variability over time. Detailed studies on water quality are also presented. As a result of this work, we have achieved a precision sufficient for physics analyses over a wide energy range (from a few MeV to above 1 TeV). For example, charge determination was at the level of 1%, and the timing resolution was 2.1 ns at the one-photoelectron charge level and 0.5 ns at the 100-photoelectron charge level.

AB - Procedures and results on hardware-level detector calibration in Super-Kamiokande (SK) are presented in this paper. In particular, we report improvements made in our calibration methods for the experimental phase IV in which new readout electronics have been operating since 2008. The topics are separated into two parts. The first part describes the determination of constants needed to interpret the digitized output of our electronics so that we can obtain physical numbers such as photon counts and their arrival times for each photomultiplier tube (PMT). In this context, we developed an in situ procedure to determine high-voltage settings for PMTs in large detectors like SK, as well as a new method for measuring PMT quantum efficiency and gain in such a detector. The second part describes modeling of the detector in Monte Carlo simulations, including, in particular, the optical properties of the water target and their variability over time. Detailed studies on water quality are also presented. As a result of this work, we have achieved a precision sufficient for physics analyses over a wide energy range (from a few MeV to above 1 TeV). For example, charge determination was at the level of 1%, and the timing resolution was 2.1 ns at the one-photoelectron charge level and 0.5 ns at the 100-photoelectron charge level.

KW - Cosmic rays

KW - Detector calibration

KW - Neutrino detector

KW - Super-Kamioknade

KW - Water Cherenkov detector

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84890475110&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84890475110&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.nima.2013.11.081

DO - 10.1016/j.nima.2013.11.081

M3 - Article

VL - 737

SP - 253

EP - 272

JO - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

JF - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

SN - 0168-9002

ER -