The Buchwald–Hartwig amination of nitroarenes was achieved for the first time by using palladium catalysts bearing dialkyl(biaryl)phosphine ligands. These cross-coupling reactions of nitroarenes with diarylamines, arylamines, and alkylamines afforded the corresponding substituted arylamines. A catalytic cycle involving the oxidative addition of the Ar−NO2 bond to palladium(0) followed by nitrite/amine exchange is proposed based on a stoichiometric reaction.
- C−N activation
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