The revised WHO classification proposed the term "refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC)" for children with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with a low blast count. The differential diagnosis between RCC and aplastic anemia (AA) is challenging, especially when bone marrow is hypoplastic and there is no detectable chromosomal abnormality. To reveal the difference between AA and RCC with respect to the clinical and biological features, we retrospectively reviewed the bone marrow smears of 140 patients registered for childhood AA-97 study, which were classified into three groups as follows; the AA group was defined as having no morphologically dysplastic changes; the AA-RCC borderline group was defined as having <10% dysplastic changes in the erythroid lineage only; and the RCC group was defined as having dysplastic changes in more than two cell lineages or >10% in a single cell lineage. The patients were classified into the AA group (n=96, 69%), AA-RCC borderline group (n=20, 14%) and RCC group (n=24, 17%). Most of the patients in the AA group were classified as having very severe disease, whereas most of the patients in the RCC group were classified as non-severe disease. Only 2 patients in the AA group developed acute myeloid leukemia. The response rate to immunosuppressive therapy did not differ among the 3 groups. To demonstrate whether the two diseases are truly different entities, it is necessary to compare molecular backgrounds between the AA and RCC groups.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||[Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology|
|Publication status||Published - Aug 2011|
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