The continuous release of bone-stored growth factors after bone resorption promotes the colonization of circulating cancer cells. However, the precise role of each of the various growth factors remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of bone-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF) in the development of bone metastases in an animal model of breast cancer. We found that local stimulation of calvarial bone resorption before cell inoculation stimulated subsequent bone metastases to that site in vivo, although inhibition of bone resorption inhibited bone metastases. Anchorage-independent growth of cancer cells was stimulated by the culture supernatants from resorbed bones, which contained elevated levels of IGF-I. This stimulation was blocked by IGF type I receptor (IGF-IR) neutralizing antibody, but not antibody targeting other bone-stored growth factors including TGF-β, fibroblast growth factors, and platelet-derived growth factors. Although recombinant human IGF-I caused IGF-IR tyrosine autophosphorylation, followed by activation of Akt and NF-κB in cancer cells, dominant-negative inhibition of IGF-IR, Akt, or NF-κB significantly reduced bone metastases with increased apoptosis and decreased mitosis in metastatic cells. Together, our findings suggest that bone-derived IGF-I bridges the crosstalk between bone and metastasized cancer cells via activation of the IGF-IR/Akt/NF-κB pathway. Disruption of this pathway therefore may represent a promising therapeutic intervention for bone metastasis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research