Small molecules having intense luminescence properties are required to promote biological and organic material applications. We prepared five types of benzamides having pyridine, pyridazine, pyrazine, and pyrimidine rings and successfully converted them into three types of the difluoroboronated complexes, Py@BAs, as novel blue fluorophores. Py@BA having a pyridine moiety (2-Py@BA) showed no fluorescence in solution, whereas Py@BAs of pyridazine and pyrazine moieties (2,3-Py@BA and 2,5-Py@BA, respectively) emitted blue fluorescence with quantum yields of ca. 0.1. Transient absorption measurements using laser flash photolysis of the Py@BAs revealed the triplet formation of 2,3- and 2,5-Py@BAs, while little transient signal was observed for 2-Py@BA. Therefore, the deactivation processes from the lowest excited singlet state of fluorescent 2,3- and 2,5-Py@BAs consist of fluorescence and intersystem crossing to the triplet state while that of the nonfluorescent Py@BA is governed almost entirely by internal conversion to the ground state. Conversely, in the solid state, 2-Py@BA emitted intense fluorescence with a fluorescence quantum yield as high as 0.66, whereas 2,3- and 2,5-Py@BAs showed fluorescence with quantum yields of ca. 0.2. The crystal structure of 2-Py@BA took a herringbone packing motif, whereas those for 2,3- and 2,5-Py@BAs were two-dimensional sheetlike. On the basis of the difference in crystal structures, the emission mechanism in the solid state was discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry