Epidemiology of bladder cancer: Bladder cancer is the 7th most common cancer in men and the 17th most common in women in the world. The incidence of bladder cancer varies considerably among countries, with the highest incidence rates seen in Western countries and the lowest rates in Asian countries. In recent years, the mortality rate due to bladder cancer has been stable or decreased gradually. Lifestyle and urothelial carcinoma: Occupational risks, environmental risks, dietary habits and cigarette smoking are lifestyle factors known to influence the development of urothelial carcinoma. Although the relative risk of bladder cancer associated with occupations is small, the public health impact may be significant. The Western pattern of diet is associated with a significant increase in the risk of bladder cancer. It has been found that smoking accounts for more than 50% of bladder cancers in men and 30% in women. Urological patients' awareness of smoking as a risk factor for bladder cancer is lower than their awareness regarding other smoking-related disease entities. Counseling patients regarding the risk of tobacco is a role for urologists. Genetic susceptibility to urothelial carcinoma: Recent single-nucleotide polymorphism genetic studies in relation to bladder carcinogenesis have revealed several associated genetic polymorphisms of detoxification or DNA repair genes, such as NAT2, GST and OGG1. That information is important in relation to environmental risk factors and ethnic differences and will help predict the prognosis of patients with bladder cancer. Further studies are needed to confirm potential gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions leading to bladder carcinogenesis.
- Bladder cancer
- Risk factors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research