Biomarkers for oxidative stress: Clinical application in pediatric medicine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

84 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Loads of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion and nitric oxide, that overburden antioxidant systems induce oxidative stress in the body. Major cellular targets of ROS are membrane lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. Circumstantial evidence suggests that ROS play a crucial role in the initiation and progression of various diseases in children and adolescents. The involvement of ROS and oxidative stress in pediatric diseases is an important concern, but oxidative stress status in young subjects and appropriate methods for its measurement remain to be defined. Recently, specific biomarkers for oxidative damage and antioxidant defense have been introduced into the field of pediatric medicine. This review is intended to provide an overview of clinical applications of oxidative stress biomarkers in the field of pediatric medicine. First, this review presents the biochemistry and pathophysiology of ROS and antioxidant defense systems. Second, it presents a list of clinically applicable biomarkers, along with pediatric diseases in which enhanced oxidative stress might be involved. The discussion emphasizes that several reliable biomarkers are easily measurable using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Third, this review presents age-related reference normal ranges of oxidative stress biomarkers, including urinary acrolein-lysine, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, nitrite/nitrate, and pentosidine, and the changes of the parameters in several clinical conditions, including atopic dermatitis and diabetes mellitus. New and interesting data on oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in neonatal biology are also presented. Fourth, this review discusses the ever-accumulating body of data linking oxidative stress to disturbances of the nitric oxide system and vascular endothelial activation/dysfunction. Finally, this review describes the reported clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy of antioxidants for oxidative-stress related diseases. Suggestions are advanced for the direction of future trials using antioxidant therapies. Repeated measurement of appropriate parameters will enable us to discern the pathophysiological patterns of pediatric diseases and guide our therapies appropriately.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-351
Number of pages13
JournalCurrent Medicinal Chemistry
Volume14
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Pediatrics
Oxidative stress
Biomarkers
Medicine
Oxidative Stress
Antioxidants
Reactive Oxygen Species
Nitric Oxide
Reference Values
Acrolein
Immunosorbents
Biochemistry
Atopic Dermatitis
Membrane Lipids
Medical problems
Nitrites
Superoxides
Nitrates
Nucleic Acids
Lysine

Keywords

  • Antioxidants
  • Biomarkers
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
  • Nitric oxide
  • Oxidative stress
  • Pediatric medicine
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Urine samples

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Biomarkers for oxidative stress : Clinical application in pediatric medicine. / Tsukahara, Hirokazu.

In: Current Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 14, No. 3, 02.2007, p. 339-351.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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