Background: The effects of β-adrenergic blockers on the fetus are not well understood. We analyzed the maternal and neonatal outcomes of β-adrenergic blocker treatment during pregnancy to identify the risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Methods and Results: We retrospectively reviewed 158 pregnancies in women with cardiovascular disease at a single center. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed in 3 categories: the carvedilol (α/β-adrenergic blocker; α/β group, n=13); β-adrenergic blocker (β group, n=45), and control groups (n=100). Maternal outcome was not significantly different between the groups. FGR occurred in 1 patient (7%) in the α/β group, in 12 (26%) in the β group, and in 3 (3%) in the control group; there was a significant difference between the incidence of FGR between the β group and control group (P<0.05). The β group included propranolol (n=22), metoprolol (n=12), atenolol (n=6), and bisoprolol (n=5), and the individual incidence of FGR with these medications was 36%, 17%, 33%, and 0%, respectively. Conclusions: As a group, β-adrenergic blockers were significantly associated with FGR, although the incidence of FGR varied with individual β-blocker. Carvedilol, an α/β-adrenergic blocker, had no association with FGR. More controlled studies are needed to fully establish such associations.
- Beta-adrenergic blocker
- Cardiovascular disease
- Fetal growth restriction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine