Bent band structures have been empirically described in ferroelectric materials to explain the functioning of recently developed ferroelectric tunneling junction and photovoltaic devices. This report presents experimental evidence for ferroelectric band bending, which was observed in the depth profiles of atomic orbitals of angle-resolved hard x-ray photoemission spectra of ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films. The ferroelectric bent band structure is separated into three depth regions; the shallowest and deepest regions are slightly modulated by the screening effect at surface and interface, respectively, and the intermediate region exhibits the pure ferroelectric effect. In the pure ferroelectric bent band structure, we found that the binding energy of outer shell electrons shows a larger shift than that of inner shell electrons, and that the difference in energy shift is correlated with the atomic configuration of the soft phonon mode. These findings could lead to a simple understanding of the origin of electric polarization.
|Publication status||Published - Nov 5 2017|
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