Barley grain with adhering hulls is controlled by an ERF family transcription factor gene regulating a lipid biosynthesis pathway

Shin Taketa, Satoko Amano, Yasuhiro Tsujino, Tomohiko Sato, Daisuke Saisho, Katsuyuki Kakeda, Mika Nomura, Toshisada Suzuki, Takashi Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Sato, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Shinji Kawasaki, Kazuyoshi Takeda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

209 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In contrast to other cereals, typical barley cultivars have caryopses with adhering hulls at maturity, known as covered (hulled) barley. However, a few barley cultivars are a free-threshing variant called naked (hulless) barley. The covered/naked caryopsis is controlled by a single locus (nud) on chromosome arm 7HL. On the basis of positional cloning, we concluded that an ethylene response factor (ERF) family transcription factor gene controls the covered/naked caryopsis phenotype. This conclusion was validated by (i) fixation of the 17-kb deletion harboring the ERF gene among all 100 naked cultivars studied; (ii) two x-ray-induced nud alleles with a DNA lesion at a different site, each affecting the putative functional motif; and (iii) gene expression strictly localized to the testa. Available results indicate the monophyletic origin of naked barley. The Nud gene has homology to the Arabidopsis WIN1/SHN1 transcription factor gene, whose deduced function is control of a lipid biosynthesis pathway. Staining with a lipophilic dye (Sudan black B) detected a lipid layer on the pericarp epidermis only in covered barley. We infer that, in covered barley, the contact of the caryopsis surface, overlaid with lipids to the inner side of the hull, generates organ adhesion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4062-4067
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume105
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 25 2008

Keywords

  • Caryopsis
  • Domestication
  • Epidermis
  • Ethylene response factor
  • Grass

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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