Background: Rashkind balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) can be challenging in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and small atrial septal defect (ASD). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all infants with HLHS who underwent surgery and BAS between January 2006 and December 2015. The infants were divided into three groups: no BAS; catheter BAS; and open AS. Infants who underwent catheter BAS were divided into two groups based on atrial septal anatomy: standard and complex. Results: Of the 70 patients, 57 (81%) underwent Glenn surgery. Subsequently, a significant difference in survival was observed: 86% (44/51), 91% (10/11), and 25% (2/8) in the no BAS, catheter BAS, and open AS groups, respectively (P = 0.0002). No significant difference was seen between the no BAS and the catheter BAS groups (P = 1.0). In the 56 patients who underwent catheterization after surgery, no intergroup differences in mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, or pulmonary artery index were found. We classified catheter BAS into standard (n = 5) and complex (n = 5) based on ASD location, and septum thickness. All patients in the standard group underwent complete Rashkind BAS, but in the complex group, only one patient underwent complete Rashkind BAS, with the remaining requiring initial static BAS (P = 0.048). Following septostomy, ASD size, ASD flow, and percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions: Catheter BAS is effective in infants with HLHS and a restrictive atrial septum. Infants with standard or complex atrial septum can achieve equivalent outcomes despite more patients often requiring static BAS.
- atrial septal defect
- atrial septum
- hypoplastic left heart syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health