Bacterial adhesion not inhibited by ion-releasing bioactive glass filler

Kumiko Yoshihara, Noriyuki Nagaoka, Yukinori Maruo, Hidehiko Sano, Yasuhiro Yoshida, Bart Van Meerbeek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Objective Bioactive glasses and surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (sPRG) filler possess cariostatic properties owing to ion release. Many studies investigated potential cariostatic effects; few studies evaluated the surface stability and the structural changes their surfaces undergo in acidic conditions. Methods The surface resistance against acid attack and the surface receptiveness for bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation of a sPRG-filled (Beautifil ll, Shofu) and conventional glass-filled (Herculite XRV Ultra, Kerr) resin-based composite (RBC), and a conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC; Fuji IX GP Extra, GC) were examined. Specimens (n = 3) were immersed in distilled water or lactic acid (pH 4.0) for 3 days. Bacterial growth and biofilm formation were recorded using optical density and SEM. Results Upon 3-day immersion in lactic acid, the surface of the sPRG-filled RBC revealed multiple holes, while virtually no change in surface integrity was observed for the conventional RBC and GIC. Bacterial growth measurements revealed that none of the materials inhibited Streptococcus mutans (p < 0.05). Remarkably, cross-sectional SEM revealed that S. mutans had penetrated the etch pits induced by lactic acid in/around the sPRG filler. Ion-release measurements revealed that sPRG-filled RBC released boron and fluoride, while GIC only released fluoride. However, the concentration of ions released by both materials appeared not sufficient to inhibit bacterial growth. Moreover, the structural surface change and resultant increased surface roughness appeared to have promoted biofilm formation. Significance While having bioactive potential through ion release, the stability of surface integrity of bioactive materials is a key-parameter to be assessed with regard to their cariostatic potential.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)723-734
Number of pages12
JournalDental Materials
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2017


  • Antibacterial
  • Biofilm
  • Fluoride
  • Ion release
  • Resin-based composite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


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