Recently, atypical Castleman's disease (CD) was reported in Japan. This disease is considered as TAFRO syndrome or non-idiopathic plasmacytic lymphadenopathy (IPL), a constellation of clinical symptoms, namely, thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis, and organomegaly without hyper-γ-globulinemia. Histopathologically, this disease is similar to hyaline vascular (HV)-type CD. Here, we present a 43-year-old Japanese woman meeting the clinical criteria of TAFRO syndrome who was successfully treated with combined corticosteroid therapy. She showed a rapidly progressive course of thrombocytopenia, systemic lymphadenopathy, fever, anasarca, and increase in acute inflammatory proteins without hyper-γ-globulinemia. Lymph node biopsy was performed and revealed HV-type CD without human herpes virus 8 infection, which was clinicopathologically compatible with non-IPL. The association of these atypical features with well-known multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), namely, HV-type histology with systemic lymphadenopathy, marked thrombocytopenia even with a high level of interleukin-6, and increased acute inflammatory proteins without hyper-γ-globulinemia, suggests that TAFRO syndrome as presented in our case is a novel entity, which may have been diagnosed as MCD in the past. To define this novel entity more clearly and to demonstrate its etiology, further nationwide surveys of this syndrome and MCD are needed.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of clinical and experimental hematopathology : JCEH|
|Publication status||Published - 2013|
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