Asymmetric Phosphorus Incorporation in Homoepitaxial P-Doped (111) Diamond Revealed by Photoelectron Holography

Takayoshi Yokoya, K. Terashima, A. Takeda, T. Fukura, H. Fujiwara, T. Muro, T. Kinoshita, H. Kato, S. Yamasaki, T. Oguchi, Takanori Wakita, Yuji Muraoka, T. Matsushita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Diamond has two crystallographically inequivalent sites in the unit cell. In doped diamond, dopant occupation in the two sites is expected to be equal. Nevertheless, preferential dopant occupation during growth under nonequilibrium conditions is of fundamental importance, for example, to enhance the properties of nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers; therefore, this is a promising candidate for a qubit. However, the lack of suitable experimental techniques has made it difficult to study the crystal- and chemical-site-resolved local structures of dopants. Here, we confirm the identity of two chemical sites with asymmetric dopant incorporation in the diamond structure, via the photoelectron holography (PEH) of heavily phosphorus (P)-doped diamond prepared by chemical vapor deposition. One is substitutionally incorporated P with preferential site occupations and the other can be attributed to a PV split vacancy complex with preferential orientation. The present study shows that PEH is a valuable technique to study the local structures around dopants with a resolution of crystallographically inequivalent but energetically equivalent sites/orientations. Such information provides strategies to improve the properties of dopant related-complexes in which alignment is crucial for sensing of magnetic field or quantum spin register using N-V centers in diamond.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNano Letters
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Diamond
Holography
Photoelectrons
holography
Phosphorus
phosphorus
Diamonds
photoelectrons
diamonds
Doping (additives)
occupation
Vacancies
nonequilibrium conditions
registers
Crystal orientation
alignment
vapor deposition
Chemical vapor deposition
Nitrogen
nitrogen

Keywords

  • asymmetric dopant incorporation
  • diamond
  • Dopant local structure
  • dopant-vacancy complex
  • photoelectron holography
  • substitutional doping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Asymmetric Phosphorus Incorporation in Homoepitaxial P-Doped (111) Diamond Revealed by Photoelectron Holography. / Yokoya, Takayoshi; Terashima, K.; Takeda, A.; Fukura, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Muro, T.; Kinoshita, T.; Kato, H.; Yamasaki, S.; Oguchi, T.; Wakita, Takanori; Muraoka, Yuji; Matsushita, T.

In: Nano Letters, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yokoya, T, Terashima, K, Takeda, A, Fukura, T, Fujiwara, H, Muro, T, Kinoshita, T, Kato, H, Yamasaki, S, Oguchi, T, Wakita, T, Muraoka, Y & Matsushita, T 2019, 'Asymmetric Phosphorus Incorporation in Homoepitaxial P-Doped (111) Diamond Revealed by Photoelectron Holography', Nano Letters. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b01481
Yokoya, Takayoshi ; Terashima, K. ; Takeda, A. ; Fukura, T. ; Fujiwara, H. ; Muro, T. ; Kinoshita, T. ; Kato, H. ; Yamasaki, S. ; Oguchi, T. ; Wakita, Takanori ; Muraoka, Yuji ; Matsushita, T. / Asymmetric Phosphorus Incorporation in Homoepitaxial P-Doped (111) Diamond Revealed by Photoelectron Holography. In: Nano Letters. 2019.
@article{b5dbe2e95a61409db445092769d60e34,
title = "Asymmetric Phosphorus Incorporation in Homoepitaxial P-Doped (111) Diamond Revealed by Photoelectron Holography",
abstract = "Diamond has two crystallographically inequivalent sites in the unit cell. In doped diamond, dopant occupation in the two sites is expected to be equal. Nevertheless, preferential dopant occupation during growth under nonequilibrium conditions is of fundamental importance, for example, to enhance the properties of nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers; therefore, this is a promising candidate for a qubit. However, the lack of suitable experimental techniques has made it difficult to study the crystal- and chemical-site-resolved local structures of dopants. Here, we confirm the identity of two chemical sites with asymmetric dopant incorporation in the diamond structure, via the photoelectron holography (PEH) of heavily phosphorus (P)-doped diamond prepared by chemical vapor deposition. One is substitutionally incorporated P with preferential site occupations and the other can be attributed to a PV split vacancy complex with preferential orientation. The present study shows that PEH is a valuable technique to study the local structures around dopants with a resolution of crystallographically inequivalent but energetically equivalent sites/orientations. Such information provides strategies to improve the properties of dopant related-complexes in which alignment is crucial for sensing of magnetic field or quantum spin register using N-V centers in diamond.",
keywords = "asymmetric dopant incorporation, diamond, Dopant local structure, dopant-vacancy complex, photoelectron holography, substitutional doping",
author = "Takayoshi Yokoya and K. Terashima and A. Takeda and T. Fukura and H. Fujiwara and T. Muro and T. Kinoshita and H. Kato and S. Yamasaki and T. Oguchi and Takanori Wakita and Yuji Muraoka and T. Matsushita",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b01481",
language = "English",
journal = "Nano Letters",
issn = "1530-6984",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Asymmetric Phosphorus Incorporation in Homoepitaxial P-Doped (111) Diamond Revealed by Photoelectron Holography

AU - Yokoya, Takayoshi

AU - Terashima, K.

AU - Takeda, A.

AU - Fukura, T.

AU - Fujiwara, H.

AU - Muro, T.

AU - Kinoshita, T.

AU - Kato, H.

AU - Yamasaki, S.

AU - Oguchi, T.

AU - Wakita, Takanori

AU - Muraoka, Yuji

AU - Matsushita, T.

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Diamond has two crystallographically inequivalent sites in the unit cell. In doped diamond, dopant occupation in the two sites is expected to be equal. Nevertheless, preferential dopant occupation during growth under nonequilibrium conditions is of fundamental importance, for example, to enhance the properties of nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers; therefore, this is a promising candidate for a qubit. However, the lack of suitable experimental techniques has made it difficult to study the crystal- and chemical-site-resolved local structures of dopants. Here, we confirm the identity of two chemical sites with asymmetric dopant incorporation in the diamond structure, via the photoelectron holography (PEH) of heavily phosphorus (P)-doped diamond prepared by chemical vapor deposition. One is substitutionally incorporated P with preferential site occupations and the other can be attributed to a PV split vacancy complex with preferential orientation. The present study shows that PEH is a valuable technique to study the local structures around dopants with a resolution of crystallographically inequivalent but energetically equivalent sites/orientations. Such information provides strategies to improve the properties of dopant related-complexes in which alignment is crucial for sensing of magnetic field or quantum spin register using N-V centers in diamond.

AB - Diamond has two crystallographically inequivalent sites in the unit cell. In doped diamond, dopant occupation in the two sites is expected to be equal. Nevertheless, preferential dopant occupation during growth under nonequilibrium conditions is of fundamental importance, for example, to enhance the properties of nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers; therefore, this is a promising candidate for a qubit. However, the lack of suitable experimental techniques has made it difficult to study the crystal- and chemical-site-resolved local structures of dopants. Here, we confirm the identity of two chemical sites with asymmetric dopant incorporation in the diamond structure, via the photoelectron holography (PEH) of heavily phosphorus (P)-doped diamond prepared by chemical vapor deposition. One is substitutionally incorporated P with preferential site occupations and the other can be attributed to a PV split vacancy complex with preferential orientation. The present study shows that PEH is a valuable technique to study the local structures around dopants with a resolution of crystallographically inequivalent but energetically equivalent sites/orientations. Such information provides strategies to improve the properties of dopant related-complexes in which alignment is crucial for sensing of magnetic field or quantum spin register using N-V centers in diamond.

KW - asymmetric dopant incorporation

KW - diamond

KW - Dopant local structure

KW - dopant-vacancy complex

KW - photoelectron holography

KW - substitutional doping

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85071947479&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85071947479&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b01481

DO - 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b01481

M3 - Article

C2 - 31373825

AN - SCOPUS:85071947479

JO - Nano Letters

JF - Nano Letters

SN - 1530-6984

ER -