Previous studies demonstrated independent contributions of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs) and high uric acid (UA) concentrations to increased risks of lifestyle-related diseases (LSRDs), but the important associations between these factors and LSRDs remain unknown. We quantified PFAAs and UA amongst Japanese subjects without LSRDs (no-LSRD, n = 2805), and with diabetes mellitus (DM, n = 415), dyslipidemia (n = 3207), hypertension (n = 2736) and metabolic syndrome (MetS, n = 717). The concentrations of most amino acids differed significantly between the subjects with and without hyperuricemia (HU) and also between the no-LSRD and LSRD groups (p < 0.05 to 0.001). After adjustment, the logistic regression analyses revealed that lysine in DM, alanine, proline and tyrosine in dyslipidemia, histidine, lysine and ornithine in hypertension, and lysine and tyrosine in MetS demonstrated significant positive associations with HU among the patients with LSRDs only (p < 0.05 to 0.005). By contrast, arginine, asparagine and threonine showed significant inverse associations with HU in the no-LSRD group only (p < 0.05 to 0.01). For the first time, we provide evidence for distinct patterns of association between PFAAs and HU in LSRDs, and postulate the possibility of interplay between PFAAs and UA in their pathophysiology.
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