Association between emergency medical service transport time and survival in patients with traumatic cardiac arrest: a Nationwide retrospective observational study

Hiromichi Naito, Tetsuya Yumoto, Takashi Yorifuji, Tsuyoshi Nojima, Hirotsugu Yamamoto, Taihei Yamada, Kohei Tsukahara, Mototaka Inaba, Takeshi Nishimura, Takenori Uehara, Atsunori Nakao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Patients with traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) are known to have poor prognoses. In 2003, the joint committee of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma proposed stopping unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) sustained for > 15 min after TCA. However, in 2013, a specific time-limit for terminating resuscitation was dropped, due to the lack of conclusive studies or data. We aimed to define the association between emergency medical services transport time and survival to demonstrate the survival curve of TCA. Methods: A retrospective review of the Japan Trauma Data Bank. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 16, at least one trauma with Abbreviated Injury Scale score (AIS) ≥ 3, and CPR performed in a prehospital setting. Exclusion criteria were burn injury, AIS score of 6 in any region, and missing data. Estimated survival rate and risk ratio for survival were analyzed according to transport time for all patients. Analysis was also performed separately on patients with sustained TCA at arrival. Results: Of 292,027 patients in the database, 5336 were included in the study with 4141 sustained TCA. Their median age was 53 years (interquartile range (IQR) 36–70), and 67.2% were male. Their median Injury Severity Score was 29 (IQR 22–41), and median transport time was 11 min (IQR 6–17). Overall survival after TCA was 4.5%; however, survival of patients with sustained TCA at arrival was only 1.2%. The estimated survival rate and risk ratio for sustained TCA rapidly decreased after 15 min of transport time, with estimated survival falling below 1%. Conclusion: The chances of survival for sustained TCA declined rapidly while the patient is transported with CPR support. Time should be one reasonable factor for considering termination of resuscitation in patients with sustained TCA, although clinical signs of life, and type and severity of trauma should be taken into account clinically.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104
JournalBMC Emergency Medicine
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Cardiac arrest
  • Mortality
  • Time-to-treatment
  • Trauma care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine

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