The chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex is composed of at least 29 subunits and has an important role in mediating photosystem I (PSI) cyclic electron transport (CET)1–3. The NDH complex associates with PSI to form the PSI–NDH supercomplex and fulfil its function. Here, we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of a PSI–NDH supercomplex from barley (Hordeum vulgare). The structures reveal that PSI–NDH is composed of two copies of the PSI–light-harvesting complex I (LHCI) subcomplex and one NDH complex. Two monomeric LHCI proteins, Lhca5 and Lhca6, mediate the binding of two PSI complexes to NDH. Ten plant chloroplast-specific NDH subunits are presented and their exact positions as well as their interactions with other subunits in NDH are elucidated. In all, this study provides a structural basis for further investigations on the functions and regulation of PSI–NDH-dependent CET.
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