Application of liposomes for development of oral vaccines: Study of in vitro stability of liposomes and antibody response to antigen associated with liposomes after oral immunization

Mei Han, Shinobu Watarai, Kazuko Kobayashi, Tatsuji Yasuda

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In order to evaluate the usefulness of liposomes as oral vaccines, the stability of liposomes and serum IgA antibody response to antigen associated with liposomes after oral administration were examined. Liposomes composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine (DPPS), and cholesterol (Chol) (1:1:2, molar ratio), distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and Chol (7:2, molar ratio), and DSPC, DPPS, and Chol (7:3:2 or 1:1:2, molar ratio) were stable in acidic solution (pH 2.0), bile, and pancreatin solution, whereas liposomes composed of DPPC and Chol (7:2, molar ratio) and DPPC, DPPS, and Chol (7:3:2, molar ratio) were unstable in pH 2.0 and/or bile solutions. After the oral immunization of antigen (ganglioside GM1)-containing liposomes composed of DPPC, DPPS, and Chol (1:1:2, molar ratio) to mice, the serum IgA antibody responses against ganglioside GM1 were found. Furthermore, when monophosphoryl lipid A was incorporated into liposomes containing ganglioside GM1, further augmentation of IgA responses to ganglioside GM1 was observed. On the other hand, the oral administration with liposomes composed of DPPC, Chol, and ganglioside GM1 (unstable liposomes), ganglioside GM1 mixed with liposomes composed of DPPC, DPPS and Chol, and ganglioside GM1 alone was unable to induce any detectable anti-ganglioside GM1 IgA antibody responses. These results suggest that liposomes which showed the stability to acidic solution, bile, and pancreatin solution would serve effectively as an oral delivery vehicle for inducing mucosal immune responses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1109-1114
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Veterinary Medical Science
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1997



  • Liposome
  • Mucosal immunity
  • Oral administration
  • Oral vaccine
  • Stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Marketing
  • veterinary(all)

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