Antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with lymphoma

Kentaro Narita, So Nakaji, Rikako Tabata, Toshiki Terao, Ayumi Kuzume, Takafumi Tsushima, Daisuke Ikeda, Ami Fukumoto, Daisuke Miura, Masami Takeuchi, Masahiro Doi, Yuka Umezawa, Yoshihito Otsuka, Hiroyuki Takamatsu, Kosei Matsue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Patients with lymphoma are at increased risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); therefore, evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination efficacy is essential. We conducted a prospective observational study to monitor the antibody response in 500 patients with lymphoma after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Antibody levels increased in a stepwise manner after the first and second dose of the vaccine. After completion of the two-dose series, anti-S antibody was negative in 109 patients (21.8%), and below clinically protective levels (anti-S ≥ 264 U/mL) in 236 patients (47.2%). The median anti-S titers at 0–6 months, 7–12 months, 13–24 months, and 24 months after treatment completion were 0.4 U/mL, 3.8 U/mL, 270 U/mL, and 650 U/mL, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that receiving the vaccine < 6 months since completing treatment, white blood cell count < 5050/μL, percentage of CD19 + cells < 10%, CD4 + cells < 27%, immunoglobulin (Ig) A < 195 mg/dL, IgM < 50 mg/dL, serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor > 600 U/mL, and presence of lymphoma cells in the peripheral blood were significantly correlated with anti-S < 264 U/mL. Lymphoma patients had variably impaired antibody response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We identified various factors to predict COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness in lymphoma patients that may help tailoring possible vaccine boosters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)728-736
Number of pages9
JournalInternational journal of hematology
Volume115
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • COVID-19 vaccine
  • Lymphoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology

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