Anatomy of the mandibular canal and surrounding structures. Part II: Cancellous pattern of the mandible

Joe Iwanaga, Koshi Shiromoto, Tomotaka Kato, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Soichiro Ibaragi, R. Shane Tubbs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: It is necessary to correlate cancellous bone patterns with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, but this has not been done to date. The goal of this study was to establish how the superior wall of the mandibular canal (MC) on CBCT images correlates with the cancellous bone around the MC on gross anatomical findings. Methods: Twenty sides from 10 dry mandibles derived from six females and four males were used for this study. In order to observe the MC distally, the specimen was prepared by the method used in our previous study. The cancellous bone around the MC was observed and classified into three types: type I (trabecular pattern), type II (osteoporotic pattern), and type III (dense/irregular pattern). The mandibles were examined with CBCT and the superior wall of the MC on CBCT was scored as visible or non-visible. Finally, the scores (visible or non-visible) were compared to the type by gross observation. Results: For gross observation, a total of 80 areas were available for this study. The data were added to those from our previous study. As a result, 155 areas on 40 sides were analyzed. In dentulous sections, types I, II, and III were found in 55.8%, 20.9%, and 23.3%, respectively. In edentulous sections, the corresponding percentages were 25.0%, 41.1%, and 33.9%, respectively. The dentulous sections was more likely than edentulous to have a type I mandible in both sexes. More females than males had type II (osteoporotic) mandibles. When the superior wall of the MC was non-visible on CBCT, the cancellous bone was type II in 80%. Conclusions: We believe the results can easily be applied to preoperative diagnosis with not only radiological but also anatomical evidence. This classification now necessitates clinical trials for further evidence.

Original languageEnglish
Article number151583
JournalAnnals of Anatomy
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020


  • Anatomy
  • Bone density
  • Bone quality
  • Cadaver
  • Cone beam computed tomography
  • Inferior alveolar nerve
  • Mandibular canal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Developmental Biology


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