An attempt to model three-dimensional arm movement time: Effects of movement distance, approach angle to target and movement direction

Atsuo Murata, Takanori Akiyama, Takehito Hayami

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)


Technologies on three-dimensional human interfaces are paid more and more attention in recent years. However, there are few studies that clarified the condition of angle and distance under which we feel the three-dimensional movement to an object easy to point. The aim of this study was to explore how the movement distance and the approach angle to the object affected the pointing movement and to model the three-dimensional movement. In the experiment, five targets were installed on the surface of a rectangular solid. The approach angle and the movement distance to the surface were controlled as experimental parameters, and thus the movement time to the target was measured. We examined how the movement time changed as a function of the approach angle and the movement distance. The movement time tended to increase when the movement distance was short. Moreover, with the increase of approach angle, in particular, when the movement was carried out on the opposite side of a preferred hand, the movement time tended to increase. When the movement was conducted on the same side with a preferred hand, the approach angle did not affect the movement time. In other words, the relationship between the approach angle and the movement time was different between clockwise and counterclockwise movements. On the basis of the finding, an attempt was made to model the arm movement separately according to the clockwise and counterclockwise movements.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Usability Evaluation Part I
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9781439870259
ISBN (Print)9781439870242
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2012



  • Dispersion of trajectory
  • Fitts’ law
  • Movement time
  • Movement trajectory
  • Three-dimensional modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)

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