We examined the neuroprotective effects amlodipine and/or atorvastatin in metabolic syndrome (MetS) Zucker fatty rats against transient (90 min) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The rats were pretreated with vehicle, amlodipine, atorvastatin, or amlodipine plus atorvastatin for 28 days, and 24 hr after transient MCAO the infarct size was assessed via hematoxylin and eosin staining, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin in situ nick end labeling (TUNEL) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) expression were examined by immunohistochemistry to evaluate apoptosis and autophagy, respectively. Compared with the vehicle group, rats treated with amlodipine or atorvastatin alone showed a significant decrease in infarct volume (P < 0.01), which was further decreased in the amlodipine plus atorvastatin group (P < 0.001). Compared with the vehicle group, the numbers of TUNEL- and LC3-positive cells were markedly reduced by amlodipine or atorvastatin alone (P < 0.01) and further decreased by amlodipine plus atorvastatin (P < 0.001). The number of apoptotic TUNEL/autophagic LC3 double-positive cells was also significantly decreased with amlodipine or atorvastatin alone compared with vehicle (P < 0.01) and was further decreased by amlodipine plus atorvastatin (P < 0.001). These data suggest additive neuroprotective effects of combination amlodipine and atorvastatin treatment after acute ischemic stroke in MetS model Zucker rats. These effects are mediated, at least in part, via antiapoptotic and antiautophagic mechanisms. Further studies are now needed to expand these preliminary results to understand fully the mechanisms involved in the protective effects of amlodipine and atorvastatin against ischemic stroke.
- Cerebral ischemia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience