Triticale, a hybrid between wheat and rye, shows a high degree of Al tolerance that is inherited from rye, but the mechanisms of high Al tolerance in both rye and triticale are unknown. We found that the short arm of chromosome 3R carries genes necessary for Al tolerance in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmark cv Currency). Detailed comparative studies with a 3DS.3RL translocation line (ST22) and a non-substitution line (ST2) were conducted. Root elongation was similarly inhibited by Al in ST2 and ST22 during the first 12 h of Al treatment, but more strongly in ST22 than in ST2 at 18 h and thereafter. The root inhibition induced by other metals (Cu, Cd, and La) was similar between ST2 and ST22, suggesting that the action of the genes for Al tolerance on the short arm of triticale chromosome 3R is highly specific to Al. A 2-fold larger amount of malate and citrate was released from the roots of ST2 than from ST22 at 12 and 18 h after Al treatment, respectively. The marked lag phase in the inhibition of root elongation and the release of organic acids implies that the expression of genes on the short arm of triticale chromosome 3R is induced by Al, and that these genes are necessary for the release of organic acids.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Plant Science