The aluminium cation Al3+ is toxic to many plants at micromolar concentrations. A range of plant species has evolved mechanisms that enable them to grow on acid soils where toxic concentrations of Al3+ can limit plant growth. Organic acids play a central role in these aluminium tolerance mechanisms. Some plants detoxify aluminium in the rhizosphere by releasing organic acids that chelate aluminium. In at least two species, wheat and maize, the transport of organic acid anions out of the root cells is mediated by aluminium-activated anion channels in the plasma membrane. Other plants, including species that accumulate aluminium in their leaves, detoxify aluminium internally by forming complexes with organic acids.
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