The pathophysiological processes leading to epilepsy are poorly understood. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the onset of epilepsy is crucial for drug development. Epileptogenicity is thought to be associated with changes in synaptic plasticity; however, whether extracellular matrix molecules - known regulators of synaptic plasticity - are altered during epileptogenesis is unknown. To test this, we used a pentylenetetrazole- (PTZ-) kindling model mouse to investigate changes to hippocampal parvalbumin- (PV-) positive neurons, extracellular matrix molecules, and perineuronal nets (PNNs) after the last kindled seizure. We found an increase in Wisteria floribunda agglutinin- (WFA-) and Cat-315-positive PNNs and a decrease in PV-positive neurons not surrounded by PNNs, in the hippocampus of PTZ-kindled mice compared to control mice. Furthermore, the expression of WFA- and Cat-315-positive molecules increased in the extracellular space of PTZ-kindled mice. In addition, consistent with previous studies, astrocytes were activated in PTZ-kindled mice. We propose that the increase in PNNs after kindling decreases neuroplasticity in the hippocampus and helps maintain the neural circuit for recurrent seizures. This study shows that possibility of changes in extracellular matrix molecules due to astrocyte activation is associated with epilepticus in PTZ-kindled mice.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology