BackgroundThere have been no longitudinal studies in Japan examining national-level data for suicide risk by marital and employment status. We examined the age-adjusted relative suicide risk (RR) by marital and employment status from national data acquired for all suicides in Japan occurring in the past 25 years.MethodsAll deaths identified as suicides according to ICD-9 and ICD-10 were extracted from vital statistics data of Japan for the years 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005. Population statistics for Japanese residents aged ≥15 years were obtained from the census.ResultsSuicide rates for almost all categories analyzed decreased in both genders between 1985 and 1990 and increased between 1995 and 2000, especially among men. Unemployed and divorced men had a consistently higher RR in each year analyzed. Unemployed and divorced women had a higher risk than those in other categories, especially in 2000 and 2005. In women, particularly in 1980, 1985 and 1990, those who were unemployed and never married had a similar RR to those who were unemployed and divorced.ConclusionsUnemployed and divorced people were at a high risk of suicide over the past 25 years, particularly in 2000 and 2005. Our findings suggest that the effects of divorce and unemployment on suicide risk are synergistic.
- marital/employment status
- relative risk
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health