In this paper, we propose a non-orthogonal multiple access with adaptive resource allocation based on factor graphs. The proposed non-orthogonal multiple access assigns multiple frequency resources for each device to send their packet. Even if the number of the devices is more than the frequency resources, the proposed non-orthogonal access allows all the devices to transmit their packets simultaneously for high capacity massive machine type communication (mMTC). Furthermore, this paper proposes adaptive resource allocation based on factor graphs that adaptively allocates the frequency resources to the devices for improvement of the transmission performances. This paper proposes two allocation criteria for the proposed adaptive allocation. This paper shows that the proposed non-orthogonal multiple access achieves superior transmission performance in 4path Rayleigh fading channel with overloading ratio of 1.5, even without the adaptive resource allocation. The adaptive resource allocation enables the proposed non-orthogonal access to attain a gain of about 5 dB at the BER of 10-4.