Diatoms are a major group of microalgae in marine and freshwater environments. To utilize the light energy in blue to green region, diatoms possess unique antenna pigment-protein complexes, fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c-binding proteins (FCPs). Depending on light qualities and quantities, diatoms form FCPs with different energies: normal-type and red-shifted FCPs. In the present study, we examined changes in light-harvesting and energy-transfer processes of a diatom Chaetoceros gracilis cells grown using white- and single-colored light-emitting diodes (LEDs), by means of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The blue LED, which is harvested by FCPs, modified energy transfer involving CP47, and suppressed energy transfer to PSI. Under the red-LED conditions, which is absorbed by both FCPs and PSs, energy transfer to PSI was enhanced, and the red-shifted FCP appeared. The red-shifted FCP was also recognized under the green- and yellow-LEDs, suggesting that lack of the shorter-wavelength light induces the red-shifted FCP. Functions of the red-shifted FCPs are discussed.