Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll (Chl) a/c-binding proteins (FCPs) are light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes found in diatoms and brown algae. Due to the characteristic pigments, such as fucoxanthin and Chl c, FCPs can capture light energy in blue-to green regions. A pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum synthesizes a red-shifted form of FCP under weak or red light, extending a light-absorption ability to longer wavelengths. In the present study, we examined changes in light-harvesting and energy-transfer processes of P. tricornutum cells grown under white- and single-colored light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The red-shifted FCP appears in the cells grown under the green, yellow, and red LEDs, and exhibited a fluorescence peak around 714 nm. Additional energy-transfer pathways are established in the red-shifted FCP; two forms (F713 and F718) of low-energy Chl a work as energy traps at 77 K. Averaged fluorescence lifetimes are prolonged in the cells grown under the yellow and red LEDs, whereas they are shortened in the blue-LED-grown cells. Based on these results, we discussed the light-adaptation machinery of P. tricornutum cells involved in the red-shifted FCP.