Active integrated antenna techniques have high potential for giving smaller size, lighter weight, lower cost and higher efficiency, in particular to millimeter-wave circuit-antenna systems. This paper gives a review of active integrated antenna techniques with emphasis on beam steering and retrodirective antenna arrays. Various beam steering operations of integrated antenna oscillator arrays using locking phenomena are presented. Beam steering arrays of such type have the feature that phase shifters are not necessary in the arrays. Arrays with higher harmonic output radiation can enlarge the beam steering range. Arrays of locked active antennas which operate as self-oscillating mixers can be beam controllable receiving antennas.
- Active antenna
- Beam control
- Coupled oscillators system
- Locking phenomenon
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering