Activation of AXL as a preclinical acquired resistance mechanism against osimertinib treatment in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer cells

Kei Namba, Kazuhiko Shien, Yuta Takahashi, Hidejiro Torigoe, Hiroki Sato, Takahiro Yoshioka, Tatsuaki Takeda, Eisuke Kurihara, Yusuke Ogoshi, Hiromasa Yamamoto, Junichi Sou, Shuta Tomida, Shinichi Toyooka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Osimertinib (AZD9291) has an efficacy superior to that of standard EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the first-line treatment of patients with EGFR-mutant advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, patients treated with osimertinib eventually acquire drug resistance, and novel therapeutic strategies to overcome acquired resistance are needed. In clinical or preclinical models, several mechanisms of acquired resistance to osimertinib have been elucidated. However, the acquired resistance mechanisms when osimertinib is initially used for EGFR-mutant NSCLC remain unclear. In this study, we experimentally established acquired osimertinib- resistant cell lines from EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines and investigated the molecular profiles of resistant cells to uncover the mechanisms of acquired resistance. Various resistance mechanisms were identified, including the acquisition of MET amplification, EMT induction, and the upregulation of AXL. Using targeted next-generation sequencing with a multigene panel, no secondary mutations were detected in our resistant cell lines. Among three MET-amplified cell lines, one cell line was sensitive to a combination of osimertinib and crizotinib. Acquired resistance cell lines derived from H1975 harboring the T790M mutation showed AXL upregulation, and the cell growth of these cell lines was suppressed by a combination of osimertinib and cabozantinib, an inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases including AXL, both in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that AXL might be a therapeutic target for overcoming acquired resistance to osimertinib. Implications: Upregulation of AXL is one of the mechanisms of acquired resistance to osimertinib, and combination of osimertinib and cabozantinib might be a key treatment for overcoming osimertinib resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)499-507
Number of pages9
JournalMolecular Cancer Research
Volume17
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2019

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Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
Cell Line
Therapeutics
Up-Regulation
Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
osimertinib
Mutation
Drug Resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Activation of AXL as a preclinical acquired resistance mechanism against osimertinib treatment in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer cells. / Namba, Kei; Shien, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Yuta; Torigoe, Hidejiro; Sato, Hiroki; Yoshioka, Takahiro; Takeda, Tatsuaki; Kurihara, Eisuke; Ogoshi, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Hiromasa; Sou, Junichi; Tomida, Shuta; Toyooka, Shinichi.

In: Molecular Cancer Research, Vol. 17, No. 2, 01.02.2019, p. 499-507.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Namba, Kei ; Shien, Kazuhiko ; Takahashi, Yuta ; Torigoe, Hidejiro ; Sato, Hiroki ; Yoshioka, Takahiro ; Takeda, Tatsuaki ; Kurihara, Eisuke ; Ogoshi, Yusuke ; Yamamoto, Hiromasa ; Sou, Junichi ; Tomida, Shuta ; Toyooka, Shinichi. / Activation of AXL as a preclinical acquired resistance mechanism against osimertinib treatment in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer cells. In: Molecular Cancer Research. 2019 ; Vol. 17, No. 2. pp. 499-507.
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AU - Torigoe, Hidejiro

AU - Sato, Hiroki

AU - Yoshioka, Takahiro

AU - Takeda, Tatsuaki

AU - Kurihara, Eisuke

AU - Ogoshi, Yusuke

AU - Yamamoto, Hiromasa

AU - Sou, Junichi

AU - Tomida, Shuta

AU - Toyooka, Shinichi

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N2 - Osimertinib (AZD9291) has an efficacy superior to that of standard EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the first-line treatment of patients with EGFR-mutant advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, patients treated with osimertinib eventually acquire drug resistance, and novel therapeutic strategies to overcome acquired resistance are needed. In clinical or preclinical models, several mechanisms of acquired resistance to osimertinib have been elucidated. However, the acquired resistance mechanisms when osimertinib is initially used for EGFR-mutant NSCLC remain unclear. In this study, we experimentally established acquired osimertinib- resistant cell lines from EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines and investigated the molecular profiles of resistant cells to uncover the mechanisms of acquired resistance. Various resistance mechanisms were identified, including the acquisition of MET amplification, EMT induction, and the upregulation of AXL. Using targeted next-generation sequencing with a multigene panel, no secondary mutations were detected in our resistant cell lines. Among three MET-amplified cell lines, one cell line was sensitive to a combination of osimertinib and crizotinib. Acquired resistance cell lines derived from H1975 harboring the T790M mutation showed AXL upregulation, and the cell growth of these cell lines was suppressed by a combination of osimertinib and cabozantinib, an inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases including AXL, both in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that AXL might be a therapeutic target for overcoming acquired resistance to osimertinib. Implications: Upregulation of AXL is one of the mechanisms of acquired resistance to osimertinib, and combination of osimertinib and cabozantinib might be a key treatment for overcoming osimertinib resistance.

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