This manuscript examines the mechanisms by which Ca2+/calmodulin- dependent protein kinase IV (CaM-kinase IV) is activated through the binding of Ca2+/CaM and by phosphorylation. Studies with the synthetic autoinhibitory domain peptides of CaM-kinase II indicate that CaM-kinase IV has a similarly located autoinhibitory domain, and this was confirmed since site-directed mutagenesis of this region (HMDT308 to DEDD and FN317 to DD) generated fully active Ca2+/CaM-independent kinases. Total activities of purified, baculovirus-expressed wild type and mutant kinases were increased 2-fold by intramolecular autophosphorylation, but this reaction was extremely slow (1-2 h) and probably not physiological. However, CaM-kinase IV can be activated by brain CaM-kinase IV kinase resulting in large increases in both total (5-7-fold) and Ca2+/CaM-independent (>20-fold) CaM-kinase IV activities. This activation reaction required Mg2+/ATP and Ca2+/CaM, was intermolecularly catalyzed, and was reversed by protein phosphatase 2A. Activation of CaM-kinase IV resulted in a 10-fold decrease in K(m) for syntide-2 with little effect on K(m) for ATP or V(max). CaM-kinase IV kinase was highly purified from rat brain extract and was shown to be a 68-kDa monomer. The results of this study demonstrate that CaM-kinase IV does have an autoinhibitory domain within residues His305-Lys321 that suppresses kinase activity in the absence of Ca2+/CaM. CaM-kinase IV is not significantly activated by autophosphorylation, but it can be activated 10- fold by a CaM-kinase IV kinase. This kinase cascade activation mechanism may be important for the physiological function of CaM-kinase IV such as transcriptional regulation through phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (Enslen, H., Sun, P., Brickey, D., Soderling, S. H., Klamo, E., and Soderling, T. R. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 15520-15527).
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 1994|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology