Rapid and simple acid-base titration was accomplished using a novel microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD). The μPAD was fabricated by wax printing and consisted of ten reservoirs for reaction and detection. The reaction reservoirs contained various amounts of a primary standard substance, potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHPth), whereas a constant amount of phenolphthalein was added to all the detection reservoirs. A sample solution containing NaOH was dropped onto the center of the μPAD and was allowed to spread to the reaction reservoirs where the KHPth neutralized it. When the amount of NaOH exceeded that of the KHPth in the reaction reservoirs, unneutralized hydroxide ion penetrated the detection reservoirs, resulting in a color reaction from the phenolphthalein. Therefore, the number of the detection reservoirs with no color change determined the concentration of the NaOH in the sample solution. The titration was completed within 1 min by visually determining the end point, which required neither instrumentation nor software. The volumes of the KHPth and phenolphthalein solutions added to the corresponding reservoirs were optimized to obtain reproducible and accurate results for the concentration of NaOH. The μPADs determined the concentration of NaOH at orders of magnitude ranging from 0.01 to 1 M. An acid sample, HCl, was also determined using Na2CO3 as a primary standard substance instead of KHPth. Furthermore, the μPAD was applicable to the titrations of nitric acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, and ammonia solutions. The μPADs were stable for more than 1 month when stored in darkness at room temperature, although this was reduced to only 5 days under daylight conditions. The analysis of acidic hot spring water was also demonstrated in the field using the μPAD, and the results agreed well with those obtained by classic acid-base titration. (Figure Presented).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry