A trace element study of siderite-jasper banded iron formation in the 3.45 Ga Warrawoona Group, Pilbara Craton - Formation from hydrothermal fluids and shallow seawater

Robert Bolhar, Martin Van Kranendonk, Balz S. Kamber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

94 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Shale-normalised rare earth element and yttrium (REE + Y) patterns for siderite-jasper couples in a banded iron formation of the 3.45 Ga Panorama Formation, Warrawoona Group, eastern Pilbara Craton, display distinct positive Y and Eu anomalies and weak positive La and Gd anomalies, combined with depleted light REE relative to middle and heavy REE. Ambient seawater and hydrothermal fluids are identified as major sources of REE + Y for the BIF. In the case of siderites, strong correlations between incompatible trace elements and trace element ratios diagnostic of seawater indicate variable input from a terrigenous source (e.g. volcanic ash). We propose a volcanic caldera setting as a likely depositional environment where jasper and siderite precipitated as alternating bands in response to episodic changes in ambient water chemistry. The episodicity was either driven by fluctuations in the intensity of hydrothermal activity or changes in magma chamber activity, which in turn controlled relative sea level. In this context, precipitation of jasper probably reflects background conditions during which seawater was saturated in silica due to evaporative conditions, while siderites were deposited most likely during intermittent periods of enhanced volcanic activity when seawater was more acidic due to the release of exhalative phases (e.g. CO2).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-114
Number of pages22
JournalPrecambrian Research
Volume137
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 28 2005
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

banded iron formation
siderite
Trace Elements
hydrothermal fluid
Seawater
craton
rare earth element
Iron
trace element
seawater
Fluids
Volcanic Eruptions
Yttrium
Sea level
anomaly
Shale
Rare earth elements
yttrium
Silicon Dioxide
hydrothermal activity

Keywords

  • Archaean
  • Banded iron formation
  • Caldera
  • Hydrothermal fluids
  • Panorama Formation
  • Pilbara Granite-Greenstone Terrain
  • Rare earth elements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

@article{0bd3fe2c435d4e16b9268e0bda6cdf62,
title = "A trace element study of siderite-jasper banded iron formation in the 3.45 Ga Warrawoona Group, Pilbara Craton - Formation from hydrothermal fluids and shallow seawater",
abstract = "Shale-normalised rare earth element and yttrium (REE + Y) patterns for siderite-jasper couples in a banded iron formation of the 3.45 Ga Panorama Formation, Warrawoona Group, eastern Pilbara Craton, display distinct positive Y and Eu anomalies and weak positive La and Gd anomalies, combined with depleted light REE relative to middle and heavy REE. Ambient seawater and hydrothermal fluids are identified as major sources of REE + Y for the BIF. In the case of siderites, strong correlations between incompatible trace elements and trace element ratios diagnostic of seawater indicate variable input from a terrigenous source (e.g. volcanic ash). We propose a volcanic caldera setting as a likely depositional environment where jasper and siderite precipitated as alternating bands in response to episodic changes in ambient water chemistry. The episodicity was either driven by fluctuations in the intensity of hydrothermal activity or changes in magma chamber activity, which in turn controlled relative sea level. In this context, precipitation of jasper probably reflects background conditions during which seawater was saturated in silica due to evaporative conditions, while siderites were deposited most likely during intermittent periods of enhanced volcanic activity when seawater was more acidic due to the release of exhalative phases (e.g. CO2).",
keywords = "Archaean, Banded iron formation, Caldera, Hydrothermal fluids, Panorama Formation, Pilbara Granite-Greenstone Terrain, Rare earth elements",
author = "Robert Bolhar and {Van Kranendonk}, Martin and Kamber, {Balz S.}",
year = "2005",
month = "4",
day = "28",
doi = "10.1016/j.precamres.2005.02.001",
language = "English",
volume = "137",
pages = "93--114",
journal = "Precambrian Research",
issn = "0301-9268",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "1-2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A trace element study of siderite-jasper banded iron formation in the 3.45 Ga Warrawoona Group, Pilbara Craton - Formation from hydrothermal fluids and shallow seawater

AU - Bolhar, Robert

AU - Van Kranendonk, Martin

AU - Kamber, Balz S.

PY - 2005/4/28

Y1 - 2005/4/28

N2 - Shale-normalised rare earth element and yttrium (REE + Y) patterns for siderite-jasper couples in a banded iron formation of the 3.45 Ga Panorama Formation, Warrawoona Group, eastern Pilbara Craton, display distinct positive Y and Eu anomalies and weak positive La and Gd anomalies, combined with depleted light REE relative to middle and heavy REE. Ambient seawater and hydrothermal fluids are identified as major sources of REE + Y for the BIF. In the case of siderites, strong correlations between incompatible trace elements and trace element ratios diagnostic of seawater indicate variable input from a terrigenous source (e.g. volcanic ash). We propose a volcanic caldera setting as a likely depositional environment where jasper and siderite precipitated as alternating bands in response to episodic changes in ambient water chemistry. The episodicity was either driven by fluctuations in the intensity of hydrothermal activity or changes in magma chamber activity, which in turn controlled relative sea level. In this context, precipitation of jasper probably reflects background conditions during which seawater was saturated in silica due to evaporative conditions, while siderites were deposited most likely during intermittent periods of enhanced volcanic activity when seawater was more acidic due to the release of exhalative phases (e.g. CO2).

AB - Shale-normalised rare earth element and yttrium (REE + Y) patterns for siderite-jasper couples in a banded iron formation of the 3.45 Ga Panorama Formation, Warrawoona Group, eastern Pilbara Craton, display distinct positive Y and Eu anomalies and weak positive La and Gd anomalies, combined with depleted light REE relative to middle and heavy REE. Ambient seawater and hydrothermal fluids are identified as major sources of REE + Y for the BIF. In the case of siderites, strong correlations between incompatible trace elements and trace element ratios diagnostic of seawater indicate variable input from a terrigenous source (e.g. volcanic ash). We propose a volcanic caldera setting as a likely depositional environment where jasper and siderite precipitated as alternating bands in response to episodic changes in ambient water chemistry. The episodicity was either driven by fluctuations in the intensity of hydrothermal activity or changes in magma chamber activity, which in turn controlled relative sea level. In this context, precipitation of jasper probably reflects background conditions during which seawater was saturated in silica due to evaporative conditions, while siderites were deposited most likely during intermittent periods of enhanced volcanic activity when seawater was more acidic due to the release of exhalative phases (e.g. CO2).

KW - Archaean

KW - Banded iron formation

KW - Caldera

KW - Hydrothermal fluids

KW - Panorama Formation

KW - Pilbara Granite-Greenstone Terrain

KW - Rare earth elements

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=17444387759&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=17444387759&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.precamres.2005.02.001

DO - 10.1016/j.precamres.2005.02.001

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:17444387759

VL - 137

SP - 93

EP - 114

JO - Precambrian Research

JF - Precambrian Research

SN - 0301-9268

IS - 1-2

ER -