A surge-like increase in luteinizing hormone preceding musth in a captive bull African elephant (Loxodonta africana)

Saroch Kaewmanee, Gen Watanabe, Megumi Keio, Yuki Yamamoto, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Miori Kishimoto, Kentaro Nagaoka, Etsuo Narushima, Masayuki Katayanagi, Risa Nakao, Yuko Sakurai, Shu Morikubo, Mikako Kaneko, Masato Yoshihara, Tomoko Yabe, Kazuyoshi Taya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)


This study was conducted to determine the correlation between reproductive hormones and musth in a male African elephant. Changes in circulating luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone and immunoreactive (ir-) inhibin and the degree of musth were evaluated for 4 years. LH increased 4 weeks before musth began. The highest concentrations of testosterone and ir-inhibin were observed from April to October. There were positive correlations among testosterone, ir-inhibin and musth behavior. These findings suggested that the surge-like LH in the pre-musth period might stimulate secretion of testosterone and ir-inhibin and thus initiate the musth behavior. This study also suggested that the high LH level before musth might be a useful biomarker for the beginning of the musth season.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)379-383
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Veterinary Medical Science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes



  • African elephant
  • Inhibin
  • Luteinizing hormone
  • Musth
  • Testosterone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Kaewmanee, S., Watanabe, G., Keio, M., Yamamoto, Y., Yamamoto, T., Kishimoto, M., Nagaoka, K., Narushima, E., Katayanagi, M., Nakao, R., Sakurai, Y., Morikubo, S., Kaneko, M., Yoshihara, M., Yabe, T., & Taya, K. (2011). A surge-like increase in luteinizing hormone preceding musth in a captive bull African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 73(3), 379-383. https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.10-0259