A surface temperature and moisture intercomparison study of the Weather Research and Forecasting model, in-situ measurements and satellite observations over the Atacama Desert

Ricardo Fonseca, María Paz Zorzano-Mier, Armando Azua-Bustos, Carlos González-Silva, Javier Martin-Torres

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1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Good knowledge of the environmental conditions of deserts on Earth is relevant for climate studies. The Atacama Desert is of particular interest as it is considered to be the driest region on Earth. We have performed simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the Atacama Desert for two week-long periods in the austral winter season coincident with surface temperature and relative humidity in-situ observations at three sites. We found that the WRF model generally overestimates the daytime surface temperature, with biases of up to 11°C, despite giving a good simulation of the relative humidity. In order to improve the agreement with observed measurements, we conducted sensitivity experiments in which the surface albedo, soil moisture content and five tuneable parameters in the Noah Land Surface Model (namely soil porosity, soil suction, saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, the b parameter used in hydraulic functions and the quartz fraction) are perturbed. We concluded that an accurate simulation is not possible, most likely because the Noah Land Surface Model does not have a groundwater table that may be shallow in desert regions. The WRF-predicted land surface temperature is also evaluated against that estimated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. While at night the satellite-derived and ground-based measurements are generally in agreement, during the day MODIS estimates are typically lower by as much as 17°C. This is attributed to the large uncertainty in the MODIS-estimated land surface temperatures in arid and semi-arid regions. The findings of this work highlight the need for ground-based observational networks in remote regions such as the Atacama Desert where satellite-derived and model products may not be very accurate.

Original languageEnglish
JournalQuarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

in situ measurement
surface temperature
desert
moisture
land surface
weather
MODIS
relative humidity
simulation
soil
ground-based measurement
semiarid region
arid region
suction
albedo
hydraulic conductivity
moisture content
soil moisture
porosity
environmental conditions

Keywords

  • field campaigns < 1. Tools and methods
  • geophysical sphere
  • local or boundary layer scale < 2. Scale, Dryland/desert < 4
  • regional and mesoscale modelling < 1. Tools and methods
  • remote sensing < 1. Tools and methods
  • tropics < 5. Geographic/climatic zone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

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title = "A surface temperature and moisture intercomparison study of the Weather Research and Forecasting model, in-situ measurements and satellite observations over the Atacama Desert",
abstract = "Good knowledge of the environmental conditions of deserts on Earth is relevant for climate studies. The Atacama Desert is of particular interest as it is considered to be the driest region on Earth. We have performed simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the Atacama Desert for two week-long periods in the austral winter season coincident with surface temperature and relative humidity in-situ observations at three sites. We found that the WRF model generally overestimates the daytime surface temperature, with biases of up to 11°C, despite giving a good simulation of the relative humidity. In order to improve the agreement with observed measurements, we conducted sensitivity experiments in which the surface albedo, soil moisture content and five tuneable parameters in the Noah Land Surface Model (namely soil porosity, soil suction, saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, the b parameter used in hydraulic functions and the quartz fraction) are perturbed. We concluded that an accurate simulation is not possible, most likely because the Noah Land Surface Model does not have a groundwater table that may be shallow in desert regions. The WRF-predicted land surface temperature is also evaluated against that estimated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. While at night the satellite-derived and ground-based measurements are generally in agreement, during the day MODIS estimates are typically lower by as much as 17°C. This is attributed to the large uncertainty in the MODIS-estimated land surface temperatures in arid and semi-arid regions. The findings of this work highlight the need for ground-based observational networks in remote regions such as the Atacama Desert where satellite-derived and model products may not be very accurate.",
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author = "Ricardo Fonseca and Zorzano-Mier, {Mar{\'i}a Paz} and Armando Azua-Bustos and Carlos Gonz{\'a}lez-Silva and Javier Martin-Torres",
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journal = "Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society",
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T1 - A surface temperature and moisture intercomparison study of the Weather Research and Forecasting model, in-situ measurements and satellite observations over the Atacama Desert

AU - Fonseca, Ricardo

AU - Zorzano-Mier, María Paz

AU - Azua-Bustos, Armando

AU - González-Silva, Carlos

AU - Martin-Torres, Javier

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N2 - Good knowledge of the environmental conditions of deserts on Earth is relevant for climate studies. The Atacama Desert is of particular interest as it is considered to be the driest region on Earth. We have performed simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the Atacama Desert for two week-long periods in the austral winter season coincident with surface temperature and relative humidity in-situ observations at three sites. We found that the WRF model generally overestimates the daytime surface temperature, with biases of up to 11°C, despite giving a good simulation of the relative humidity. In order to improve the agreement with observed measurements, we conducted sensitivity experiments in which the surface albedo, soil moisture content and five tuneable parameters in the Noah Land Surface Model (namely soil porosity, soil suction, saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, the b parameter used in hydraulic functions and the quartz fraction) are perturbed. We concluded that an accurate simulation is not possible, most likely because the Noah Land Surface Model does not have a groundwater table that may be shallow in desert regions. The WRF-predicted land surface temperature is also evaluated against that estimated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. While at night the satellite-derived and ground-based measurements are generally in agreement, during the day MODIS estimates are typically lower by as much as 17°C. This is attributed to the large uncertainty in the MODIS-estimated land surface temperatures in arid and semi-arid regions. The findings of this work highlight the need for ground-based observational networks in remote regions such as the Atacama Desert where satellite-derived and model products may not be very accurate.

AB - Good knowledge of the environmental conditions of deserts on Earth is relevant for climate studies. The Atacama Desert is of particular interest as it is considered to be the driest region on Earth. We have performed simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the Atacama Desert for two week-long periods in the austral winter season coincident with surface temperature and relative humidity in-situ observations at three sites. We found that the WRF model generally overestimates the daytime surface temperature, with biases of up to 11°C, despite giving a good simulation of the relative humidity. In order to improve the agreement with observed measurements, we conducted sensitivity experiments in which the surface albedo, soil moisture content and five tuneable parameters in the Noah Land Surface Model (namely soil porosity, soil suction, saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, the b parameter used in hydraulic functions and the quartz fraction) are perturbed. We concluded that an accurate simulation is not possible, most likely because the Noah Land Surface Model does not have a groundwater table that may be shallow in desert regions. The WRF-predicted land surface temperature is also evaluated against that estimated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. While at night the satellite-derived and ground-based measurements are generally in agreement, during the day MODIS estimates are typically lower by as much as 17°C. This is attributed to the large uncertainty in the MODIS-estimated land surface temperatures in arid and semi-arid regions. The findings of this work highlight the need for ground-based observational networks in remote regions such as the Atacama Desert where satellite-derived and model products may not be very accurate.

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