We reported previously that radiocontrast medium induces caspase-dependent apoptosis and that cAMP analogs inhibit cell injury in cultured renal tubular cells. In the present study, cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of cAMP were determined. Ioversol, a radiocontrast medium, caused cell injury accompanied by decreases in Bcl-2, increases in Bax, and caspase activation in LLC-PK1 cells. Both cell injury and cellular events induced by ioversol were inhibited by dibutyryl cAMP and the prostacyclin analog beraprost. Dibutyryl cAMP increased phosphorylation of Akt and CREB, both of which were reversed by H89, wortmannin and the Akt inhibitor SH-6. The protective effect of dibutyryl cAMP was also reversed by these kinase inhibitors. In dominant-negative CREB-transfected cells, dibutyryl cAMP no longer prevented cell injury or inhibited changes in mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bax. In mice with unilateral renal occlusion, ioversol increased urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase with concomitant decreases in Bcl-2 mRNA, increases in Bax mRNA, activation of caspase-3, and induction of apoptosis in tubular and interstitial cells. Beraprost completely reversed these in vivo effects of ioversol. These findings suggest that elevation of endogenous cAMP effectively prevents radiocontrast nephropathy through activation of A kinase/PI 3-kinase/Akt followed by CREB phosphorylation and enhanced expression of Bcl-2.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine