Neofusicoccum parvum is an important plant-pathogenic ascomycetous fungus that causes trunk diseases in a variety of plants. A limited number of reports on mycoviruses from this fungus are available. Here, we report the characterization of a novel victorivirus, Neofusicoccum parvum victorivirus 3 (NpVV3). An agarose gel dsRNA profile of a Pakistani strain of N. parvum, NFN, showed a band of ~5 kbp that was not detectable in Japanese strains of N. parvum. Taking a high-throughput and Sanger sequencing approach, the complete genome sequence of NpVV3 was determined to be 5226 bp in length with two open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2) that encode a capsid protein (CP) and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). The RdRP appears to be translated by a stop/restart mechanism facilitated by the junction sequence AUGucUGA, as is found in some other victoriviruses. BLASTp searches showed that NpVV3 CP and RdRP share the highest amino acid sequence identity (80.5% and 72.4%, respectively) with the corresponding proteins of NpVV1 isolated from a French strain of N. parvum. However, NpVV3 was found to be different from NpVV1 in its terminal sequences and the stop/restart facilitator sequence. NpVV3 particles ~35 nm in diameter were partially purified and used to infect an antiviral-RNA-silencing-deficient strain (∆dcl2) of an experimental ascomycetous fungal host, Cryphonectria parasitica. NpVV3 showed symptomless infection in the new host strain.
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