Purpose: Because chemoradiotherapy selectively targets proliferating cancer cells, quiescent cancer stem-like cells are resistant. Mobilization of the cell cycle in quiescent leukemia stem cells sensitizes them to cell death signals. However, it is unclear that mobilization of the cell cycle can eliminate quiescent cancer stem-like cells in solid cancers. Thus, we explored the use of a genetically-engineered telomerase-specific oncolytic adenovirus, OBP-301, to mobilize the cell cycle and kill quiescent cancer stem-like cells. Experimental Design: We established CD133+ cancer stem-like cells from human gastric cancer MKN45 and MKN7 cells. We investigated the efficacy of OBP-301 against quiescent cancer stem-like cells. We visualized the treatment dynamics of OBP-301 killing of quiescent cancer stem-like cells in dormant tumor spheres and xenografts using a fluorescent ubiquitination cell-cycle indicator (FUCCI). Results: CD133+ gastric cancer cells had stemness properties. OBP-301 efficiently killed CD133+ cancer stem-like cells resistant to chemoradiotherapy. OBP-301 induced cell-cycle mobilization from G 0-G1to S/G2/M phases and subsequent cell death in quiescent CD133+ cancer stem-like cells by mobilizing cellcycle-related proteins. FUCCI enabled visualization of quiescent CD133 + cancer stem-like cells and proliferating CD133+ non-cancer stem-like cells. Three-dimensional visualization of the cell-cycle behavior in tumor spheres showed that CD133+ cancer stem-like cells maintained stemness by remaining in G0-G1 phase. We showed that OBP-301 mobilized quiescent cancer stem-like cells in tumor spheres and xenografts into S/G2/M phases where they lost viability and cancer stem-like cell properties and became chemosensitive. Conclusion: Oncolytic adenoviral infection is an effective mechanism of cancer cell killing in solid cancer and can be a new therapeutic paradigm to eliminate quiescent cancer stem-like cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research