A framework for assessing essential public health nursing skills and achievement levels required for students graduating from schools that provide education for obtaining a license as a public health nurse in Japan

Kiyomi Asahara, Junko Omori, Maasa Kobayashi, Yuko Hirano, Yoshimi Suzuki, Mikako Arakida, Sachiko Oki, Reiko Okamoto, Noriko Okuyama, Itsuko Kaihara, Hiroko Sudo, Hiroko Nagae, Misako Miyazaki, Sachiyo Murashima

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Abstract

PURPOSES: This study aimed to develop a framework for essential skills and the achievement levels necessary for students graduating from schools that provide education for obtaining a license as a public health nurse (PHN) in Japan. METHODS: Two rounds of questionnaire-based investigations using the Delphi methodology were conducted. Subjects were 197 PHNs from municipalities or companies and 146 nurse educators from universities, colleges, junior colleges, or technical nursing schools. RESULTS: (1) The essential skills framework consisted of three (macro, intermediate and micro) levels. Macro-level items were based on the principle of justice, a primary pillar of health care: (A) community assessment to identify health problems; (B) solving and improving particular health problems in collaboration with people to enable them to promote their own health; (C) promoting equitable access and distribution of community resources for health and daily living. Micro-level items had four achievement levels: (I) independent; (II) instructor-guided; (III) laboratory exercise; (IV) theoretical understanding. Micro-level items for A and B had two domains for achievement: individual/family and group/community. (2) In the first round over 70% of respondents said "very important," "important" or "acceptable" for all micro-level items. In the second round, over 90% said all micro-level items fit within macro and intermediate-level items. (3) In the second round, micro-level items attained 70% consensus among PHNs and nurse educators were 71 of 93 (76.3%). Micro-level expression was used for adjustment and the final framework of essential skills yielded 3 macro, 8 intermediate and 59 micro-level items and 95 levels of achievement. (4) In the final framework, the level of achievement for "individual/family" (Macro-level A and B) was almost level I, and for "group/community" almost II or III. The number of micro-level items at level IV for C was 14 of 21 (66.7%). (5) Compared with PHNs, educators generally assigned a more advanced achievement level for the same skill. CONCLUSIONS: This framework offers more clarity to the content and competency of practice and thus should be useful for basic and continuing PHN education. The assumption driving this study was the necessity to improve the nursing educational system, and develop an appropriate curriculum for the PHN national licensure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)184-194
Number of pages11
Journal[Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health
Volume57
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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    Asahara, K., Omori, J., Kobayashi, M., Hirano, Y., Suzuki, Y., Arakida, M., Oki, S., Okamoto, R., Okuyama, N., Kaihara, I., Sudo, H., Nagae, H., Miyazaki, M., & Murashima, S. (2010). A framework for assessing essential public health nursing skills and achievement levels required for students graduating from schools that provide education for obtaining a license as a public health nurse in Japan. [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health, 57(3), 184-194.